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Adam & Eve

Recently different Christian colleges have become well-known because they have made changes to their statement of faiths and required their professors and other employees sign on as accepting those definitions. This change was made to be more definitive of the historicity of Adam & Eve, a couple the owners of this website believe are historical and are described correctly by the Bible.

This webpage will present different views of Adam & Eve but we only support and accept the biblical account. We go with the truth and the secular world does not have it.
 

1. Adam and Adapa

  Shea lists “principal parallels” between the “Adapa Epic”2 and the account of Adam in Genesis 2–3:

      (1) Both subjects underwent a test before the deity, and the test was based upon something they were to consume. (2) Both failed the test and thereby forfeited their opportunity for immortality. (3) As a result of their failure, certain consequences passed upon mankind. (4) Both subjects qualify as members of the first generation of mankind. (5) Their names can be equated linguistically (1977: 39).

  However, among the differences Shea notes are these: (1) “Adapa was tested with bread and water while Adam and Eve were tested with the fruit.” (2) Though both were sentenced to death and “this sentence is even given in rather similar terms,” these terms have “quite different meanings in their respective contexts.” (3) Adapa’s choice was made in obedience to Ea, but Adam made his own free choice contrary to correct instructions. (4) “Adapa’s offense, in essence, was that he upset the course of nature, while Adam’s offense was moral in nature.” In conclusion, Shea suggests that “it is possible to view these two separate sources as independent witnesses to a common event (1977:28–35, 41). Niels-Erik Andreasen also thinks that “parallels do indeed exist between Adam and Adapa, but they are seriously blunted by the entirely different contexts in which they occur” (1981:192). However, the view that “the name Adapa is a secondary development from Adam” is not conclusive.

  As for the etymology of the word Adam, recently Sjöberg suggested that the Sumerian a2-dam, which refers exclusively to people, is “a ‘Canaanite’, West-Semitic loanword in Sumerian,” since it has no “Sumerian” etymology (1984:223). The nearest cognate of the Hebrew “‘adam is, so far, the Ugaritic adm which appears in an epithet of the god El, i.e., ab adm ‘father of man’” (Hess 1990:1–15; 1993:14–19; Andreasen 1981:181 n. 9).

(1996). Bible and Spade (1996), 9, 34.
 

2.  Sumerian

He notes that the birth of the goddesses without pain or travail illuminates the background of the curse against Eve that it shall be her lot to conceive and bear children in sorrow; Enki’s eating of the eight plants and the curse uttered against him for his misdeed recall the eating of the fruit of the tree of knowledge by Adam and Eve and the curses pronounced against each of them for this sinful action (1963: 148–49).

Kramer holds that this Sumerian literary background would explain why Eve, “the mother of all living,” was fashioned from the rib of Adam. In the present myth one of Enki’s sick organs is the rib (Sumerian ti); the goddess created for healing his rib was called in Sumerian Nin-ti “the lady of the rib.” But the Sumerian ti also means “to make live.” The name Nin-ti may thus mean “the Lady who makes live” as well as “the Lady of the rib.” Through the wordplay, these two designations were used for the same goddess. It is this “literary pun,”   according to Kramer, that explains Eve’s title and her being fashioned from Adam’s rib (1963; 149).6 (1996).

Bible and Spade (1996), 9, 35–36.
 

3. Ad’am

(Heb. Adam’, μd;a;, red SEE EDOM; hence hm;d;a}, the ground, from the ruddiness of flesh and of clayey soil, see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 24, 25; comp. Josephus, Ant. 2, 1; Jonathan’s Targum on <010207>Genesis 2:7; Leusden, Onomast, s.v.; Marek, Hist. Paradisi, 2, 5), the name of a man and a place.

1. The first man, whose creation, fall, and history are detailed by Moses in <010201>Genesis 2 - 5, being in fact the same Hebrew word usually rendered “man” (including woman also, <010501>Genesis 5:1, 2), but often used distinctively with the article (μd;2;2ah;, ha-Adam’, “the man,” Sept. and N.T. Ajda>m, Josephus &Adamov, Ant. 1, 1, 2), as a proper name (comp. Tobit 8, 6).

 It seems at first thought somewhat strange that the head of the human family should have received his distinctive name from the affinity which he had, in the lower part of his nature, to the dust of the earth — that he should have been called Adam, as being taken in his bodily part from adamah, the ground; the more especially as the name was not assumed by man himself, but imposed by God, and imposed in immediate connection with man’s destination to bear the image of God: “And God said, Let us make man (Adam) in our image, after our likeness,” etc. This apparent incongruity has led some, in particular Richers (Die Schopfungs-,

Paradieses- und Sundfluthsgesch ichte, p. 163), to adopt another etymology of the term — to make Adam a derivative of damah (hmiDi, to be like, to resemble). Delitzsch, however (System der Bibl. Psychologie, p. 49), has objected to this view, both on grammatical and other grounds; and though we do not see the force of his grammatical objection to the derivation in question, yet we think he puts the matter itself rightly, and thereby justifies the received opinion. Man’s name is kindred with that of the earth, adamah, not because of its being his characteristic dignity that God made him after his image, but because of this, that God made after his image one who had been taken from the earth.

The likeness to God man had in common with the angels, but that, as the possessor of this likeness, he should be Adam — this is what brought him into union with two worlds — the world of spirit and the world of matter — rendered him the center and the bond of all that had been made, the fitting top stone of the whole work of creation, and the motive principle of the world’s history. It is precisely his having the image of God in an earthen vessel, that, while made somewhat lower than the angels, he occupies a higher position than they in respect to the affairs of this world (<190805>Psalm 8:5; <580205>Hebrews 2:5).

McClintock & Strong’s Cyclopedia Vol. 1 Ages Software Edition
 

4. Eve

(Hebrews Chavvah', hW;ji, life or living, so called as the progenitor of all the human family; Sept. accordingly translates Zwh> in <010320>Genesis 3:20, elsewhere Eu]a, N. Test. E^ua, Josephus Euje>a, Ant. 1:1, 2, 4), the name given by Adam to the first woman, his wife (<010320>Genesis 3:20; 4:1). B.C. 4172. The account of her creation is found at <010221>Genesis 2:21, 22. It is supposed that she was created on the sixth day, after Adam had' reviewed the animals.

Upon the failure of a companion suitable for Adam among the creatures which were brought to him to be named, the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs (according to the Targum of Jonathan, the thirteenth from the right side!), which he fashioned into a woman, and brought her to the man (comp. Plato, Sympos. pages 189, 191).

The Almighty, by declaring that "it was not good for man to be alone," and by providing for him a suitable companion, gave the divine sanction to marriage and to monogamy. "This companion was taken from his side," remarks an old commentator, " to signify that he was to be dear unto him as his own flesh. Not from his head, lest she should rule over him; nor from his feet, lest he should tyrannize over her; but from his side, to denote that species of equality which is to subsist in themarriage state" (Matthew Henry, Comment. in loc.).

Perhaps that which is chiefly adumbrated by it is the foundation upon which the union between man and wife is built, viz. identity of nature and oneness of origin. Through the subtlety of the serpent (q.v.), Eve was beguiled into a violation of the one commandment which had been imposed upon her and Adam. She took of the fruit of the forbidden tree and gave it her husband (comp. <471103>2 Corinthians 11:3; <540213>1 Timothy 2:13). SEE ADAM.

The apostle seems to intimate (<540214>1 Timothy 2:14, 15) that she was less aware than her husband of the character of her sin; and that the pangs of maternity were to be in some sort an expiation of her offense. The different aspects under which Eve regarded her mission as a mother are seen in the names of her sons. At the birth of the first she said "I have gotten a man from the Lord," or, as some have rashly rendered it, “I have gotten a man; even the Lord," mistaking him for the Redeemer.

When the second was born, finding her hopes frustrated, she named him Abel, or vanity. When his brother had slain him, and she again bare a son, she called his name Seth, and the joy of a mother seemed to outweigh the sense of the vanity of life: "For God," said she, "hath appointed ME another seed instead of Abel, for Cain slew him." SEE ABEL.

The Eastern people have paid honors to Adam and Eve as to saints, and have some curious traditions concerning them (see D'Herbelot, Bibliothieque Orientale, s.v. Havah; Fabricius, Pseudepigr. V. Test. 1:103 sq.). There is a remarkable tradition preserved among the Rabbis that Eve was not the first wife of Adam, but that previous to her creation one had been created in the same way, which, they sagaciously observe, accounts for the number of a man's ribs being equal on each side. Lilith, or Lilis, for this was the name of Adam's first consort, fell from her state of innocence without tempting, or, at all events, without successfully tempting her husband.

She was immediately ranked among the fallen angels, and has ever since, according to the same tradition, exercised an inveterate hatred against all women and children. Up to a very late period she was held in great dread lest she should destroy male children previous to circumcision, after which her power over them ceased.

When that rite was solemnized, those who were present were in the habit of pronouncing, with a loud voice, the names of Adam and Eve, and a command to Lilith to depart (see Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, 2:421). She has been compared with the Pandora of classic fable (Bauer, Mythol. 1:96 sq.; Buttmann, Mythologus, 1:48 sq.; Hasse, Entdeckung. 1:232).
 

5. ADAM; IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE APOCRYPHA

<ad’-am>, ( µd:a; [’adham]; Septuagint [ÆAda>m, Adam]).

1. USAGE AND ETYMOLOGY:

The Hebrew word occurs some 560 times in the Old Testament with the meaning “man,” “mankind.” Outside Genesis 1 through 5 the only case where it is unquestionably a proper name is <130101>1 Chronicles 1:1. Ambiguous are <053208>Deuteronomy 32:8, the King James Version “sons of Adam,” the Revised Version (British and American) “children of men”;

<183133>Job 31:33 the King James Version “as” the Revised Version (British and American) “like Adam,” but margin “after the manner of men”; <280607>Hosea 6:7 the King James Version “like men,” the Revised Version (British and American) “like Adam,” and vice versa in the margin. In Genesis 1 the word occurs only twice, 1:26,27.

In Genesis 2 through 4 it is found 26 times, and in 5:1,3,4,5. In the last four cases and in 4:25 it is obviously intended as a proper name; but the versions show considerable uncertainty as to the rendering in the other cases. Most modern interpreters would restore a vowel point to the Hebrew text in 2:20; 3:17,21, thus introducing the definite article, and read uniformly “the man” up to 4:25, where the absence of the article may be taken as an indication that “the man” of the previous narrative is to be identified with “Adam,” the head of the genealogy found in 5:1 ff. Several conjectures have been put forth as to the root-meaning of the Hebrew word:

 (1) creature;

(2) ruddy one;

(3) earthborn. Less probable are

(4) pleasant — to sight — and

(5) social gregarious.

4. ADAM IN APOCRYPHA:

Allusions to the narrative of the creation and the fall of man, covering most points of the narrative of Genesis 1 through 4, are found in 2 Esdras 3:4- 7,10,21,26; 4:30; 6:54-56; 7:11,46-48; Tobit 8:6, The Wisdom of Solomon 2:23 f; 9:2 f; 10:1 f, Ecclesiasticus 15:14; 17:1-4; 25:24; 40:1; 49:16. In both 2 Esdras and The Wisdom of Solomon we read that death came upon all men through Adam’s sin, while 2 Esdras 4:30 declares that “a grain of evil seed was sown in the heart of Adam from the beginning.” Aside from this doctrinal development the Apocrypha offers no additions to the Old Testament narrative.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Vol. 1 Ages Software Edition
 

6. EVE, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

<ev>, ([hW;j”, chawwah], “life”; [Eu]a, Eua]; the name given, as the Scripture writer says, <010320>Genesis 3:20 ([Zwh>, Zoe]), from her unique function as “the mother of all living”): The first created woman; created secondarily from Adam (or man) as a “help meet for him” (<010218>Genesis 2:18-22), and later named and designated as the mother of the human race. For the literary type and object of the story of Eve, see under ADAM, I, 2.

1. THE NAMES GIVEN TO HER:

Two names are given to her, both bestowed by the man, her mate. The first, [hV;ai, ishshah], “woman” (literally, “man-ess”), is not strictly a name but a generic designation, referring to her relation to the man; a relation she was created to fulfill in default of any true companionship between man and the beasts, and represented as intimate and sacred beyond that between child and parents (<010218>Genesis 2:18-24).

The second, Eve, or “life,” given after the transgression and its prophesied results, refers to her function and destiny in the spiritual history or evolution of which she is the beginning (<010316>Genesis 3:16,20). While the names are represented as bestowed by the man, the remarks in <010224>Genesis 2:24 and 3:20b may be read as the interpretative addition of the writer, suited to the exposition which it is the object of his story to make.

4. IN SUBSEQUENT HISTORY:

After these opening chapters of Gen, Eve is not once mentioned, nor even specifically alluded to, in the canonical books of the Old Testament. It was not in the natural scope of Old Testament history and doctrine, which were concerned with Abraham’s descendants, to go back to so remote origins as are narrated in the story of the first pair.

The name Eve occurs once in the Apocrypha, in the prayer of Tobit (Tobit 8:6): “Thou madest Adam, and gavest him Eve his wife for a helper and a stay; of them came the seed of men”; the text then going on to quote <010218>Genesis 2:18. In 1 Esdras 4:20,21 there is a free quotation, or rather paraphrase, of <010224>Genesis 2:24. But not even in the somber complaints of 2 Esdras concerning the woe that Adam’s transgression brought upon the race (see under ADAM IN OLD TESTAMENT, III, 2) is there any hint of Eve’s part in the matter
 

7. Adam and Eve a myth?-- http://freethoughtnation.com/adam-and-eve-a-myth/

The NPR article below explains that Christian scholars are being forced to reconsider the account of Adam and Eve in the Bible, largely because of genetic studies. If Adam is mythical, then the Bible is incorrect and not “inerrant.” Moreover, the New Testament traces Jesus’s family lineage to the (fictional) Adam. (Lk 3:38) Based on this factor and many others, as I demonstrate in many books and articles, may we not also conclude, therefore, that Jesus is likewise fictional?

There is a grace-saving “out” for Christians and other religionists who would like to continue enjoying the human cultural artifacts of religion and mythology: It is called the “mythicist position” or “mythicism.” In my book Christ in Egypt (11-12), I defined mythicism as follows – note I specifically mentioned Adam and Eve:

    Mythicism represents the perspective that many gods, goddesses and other heroes and legendary figures said to possess extraordinary and/or supernatural attributes are not “real people” but may in fact be mythological characters. Along with this view comes the recognition that many of these figures personify or symbolize natural phenomena, such as the sun, moon, stars, planets, constellations, etc., constituting what is called “astrotheology.” As a major example of the mythicist position, various biblical characters such as Adam and Eve, Satan, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Joshua, King David, Solomon and Jesus Christ, among other figures, in reality represent mythological characters along the same lines as the Egyptian, Sumerian, Phoenician, Indian, Greek, Roman and other godmen, who are all presently accepted as myths, rather than historical figures.

It appears that the story of the original man and woman – which can be found in many places globally, revolving around a wide variety of ethnicities, not just those of the Middle East – may be one of the oldest myths, dating back tens of thousands of years and possibly originating in Africa, with the Congolese Pygmies, for one.

Researching The Human Genome

Venema says there is no way we can be traced back to a single couple. He says with the mapping of the human genome, it’s clear that modern humans emerged from other primates as a large population — long before the Genesis time frame of a few thousand years ago. And given the genetic variation of people today, he says scientists can’t get that population size below 10,000 people at any time in our evolutionary history.

To get down to just two ancestors, Venema says, “You would have to postulate that there’s been this absolutely astronomical mutation rate that has produced all these new variants in an incredibly short period of time. Those types of mutation rates are just not possible. It would mutate us out of existence.”

Venema is a senior fellow at BioLogos Foundation, a Christian group that tries to reconcile faith and science. The group was founded by Francis Collins, an evangelical and the current head of the National Institutes of Health, who, because of his position, declined an interview….

“I think this is going to be a pivotal point in Church history,” he says. “Because what rests at the very heart of this debate is whether or not key ideas within Christianity are ultimately true or not.”

But others say Christians can no longer afford to ignore the evidence from the human genome and fossils just to maintain a literal view of Genesis.

“This stuff is unavoidable,” says Dan Harlow at Calvin College. “Evangelicals have to either face up to it or they have to stick their head in the sand. And if they do that, they will lose whatever intellectual currency or respectability they have.”…
 

8. Adam and Eve-- http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/A-Am/Adam-and-Eve.html

The mythologies of many cultures include stories of a first couple, a man and woman who were the parents of the entire human race. In the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic religious traditions, these first parents were Adam and Eve.

The image of God fashioning Eve out of Adam's rib may have originated in an ancient legend from Mesopotamia *. After the god Enki ate eight plants belonging to the goddess Ninhursag, she cursed him so that eight parts of his body became diseased. When he was nearly dead, the gods persuaded Ninhursag to help him, and she created eight healing goddesses. The goddess who cured Enki's rib was Ninti, whose name meant "lady of the rib" or "lady of life." In Hebrew mythology, Adam names the woman created from his rib Hawwah, which means "life." The Mesopotamian story probably influenced the Hebrew one, which became the basis for one biblical version of Eve's creation.

Aside from the story of creation and the Fall in the book of Genesis, the Bible contains little information about Adam and Eve. Other writings, however, have added details to their story. One such work, the Life of Adam and Eve, was presented in the form of a biography. Written sometime between 20 B . C . and A . D . 70 in a biblical style, it provides a lively account of the Fall and the sufferings of Adam and Eve after leaving Eden. The greatest and most famous literary treatment of Adam and Eve is the long epic Paradise Lost, written by English poet John Milton and published in 1667.
 

9. The Eve Myth is very controversial as it opens up a Pandora's Box of issues.-- http://www.astradome.com/adam&eve_myth.htm

The original Eve had no spouse except the serpent, a living phallus she created for her own sexual pleasure.  Some ancient people regarded the Goddess and her serpent as their first parents.  Sacred icons showed the Goddess giving life to a man, while her serpent coiled around the apple tree behind her.  Deliberate misinterpretation of such icons produced ideas for revised creation myths like the one in Genesis.  Some Jewish traditions of the first century B.C., however, identified Jehovah with the serpent deity who accompanied the Mother in her garden. 

Sometimes she was Eve, sometimes her name was given as Nahemah, Naama, or Namrael, who gave birth to Adam without the help of any male, even the serpent. Because Jehovah arrogantly pretended to be the sole Creator, Eve was obliged to punish him according to Gnostic scriptures, (although it does not say how).  Though the Mother of All Living existed before everything, the God forgot she had made him and had given him some of her creative power.  "He was even ignorant of his own Mother . . . It was because he was foolish and ignorant of his Mother that he said, "I am God, there is none beside me."  Gnostic texts often show the creator reprimanded and punished for his arrogance by a feminine power greater and older than himself.

The secret of God's "Name of power," the Tetragrammaton, was that three-quarters of it invoked not God - but Eve.  YHWH,  yod-he-vau-he, came from the Hebrew root  HWH, meaning both "life" and "woman" - in Latin letters,  E-V-E.  With the addition of an "I" (yod), it amounted to the Goddess's invocation of her name as the Word of creation, a common idea in Egypt and other ancient lands.

Gnostic scriptures said Adam was created by the power of Eve's word, not God's.  Adam's name meant he was formed of clay moistened with blood, the female magic of adamah or "bloody clay."  He didn't produce the Mother of All Living from his rib; in earlier Mesopotamian stories, he was produced by hers. 

The biblical idea was a reversal of older myths in which the Goddess brought forth a primal male ancestor, then made him her mate - the ubiquitous, archetypal divine-incest relationship traceable in every mythology.  Furthermore, Gnostic scriptures said Eve not only created Adam and obtained his admission to heaven; she was the very soul within him, as Shakti was the soul of every Hindu god and yogi. 

Adam could not live without "power from the Mother," so she descended to earth as "the Good Spirit, the Thought of Light called by him "Life" (Hawwa)."  She entered into Adam as his guiding spirit of conscience.  "It is she who works at the creature, exerts herself on him, sets him in his own perfect temple, enlightens him on the origin of his deficiency, and shows him his (way of) ascent."  Through her, Adam was able to rise above the ignorance imposed on him by the male God.

By this Gnostic route came the Midrashic assertion that Adam and Eve were originally androgynous, like Shiva and his Shakti.  She dwelt in  him, and he in her; they were two souls united in one body, which God later tore apart, depriving them of their bliss of union.  Cabalists took up the idea and said the paradise of Eden can be regained only when the two sexes are once more united; even God must be united with his female counterpart, the heavenly Eve called Shekina.

It is interesting that the mythical story of the original "Eve", the "Mother of All Living" was lonely and so created a companion -   Think about it.  It is the dilemma of every women since the beginning of time.  No matter how intelligent, successful, or accomplished she may be, without a mate or spouse - a woman feels incomplete - she feels lonely.  Often, a woman will compromise on the man of her choice with hopes of changing him and bringing him up to her acceptable mental and emotional standards, often failing miserably.

Most women would cherish a man who she could honor and hold in the highest esteem, but unfortunately, he falls from the projected pedestal.  (Men will do this projection too on the woman he falls in love with.  But here, he is projecting his own internal "anima" or spirit onto the real woman.)
 

10 Is the Adam and Eve story a myth?-- https://www.quora.com/Is-the-Adam-and-Eve-story-a-myth

Myths are myths, complexe and very useful human constructions and that doesn't men they are not true or based on real events.

Now for Adam any Eve  one point is true, they existed and science can prove it very easily.

Alan Moll answer is so simple so clear, that I allow myself to copy it, with the right reference and deference.

If you go back far enough, every person on earth descends from the same common ancestors.  Although there are no records to show this, studies in DNA have made predictions on how far back you have to go:

 Mitochondrial Eve - This is the most recent woman from whom all living humans today descend matrilineally (mother to daughter) in an unbroken line.  This person is estimated to have lived between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago.

 Y-chromosomal Adam - This is the most recent man from whom all living humans today descend patrilineally (father to son) in an unbroken line.  This person is estimated to have lived between 200,000 and 300,000 years ago.

 Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) - This is the most recent individual from which all humans descend.  It is the most recent person that all humans have as a direct ancestor.  There are estimates that this person may have existed as early as 2,000 to 4,000 years ago.  However,  that is based on mathmatical modeling and random mating and doesn't take into account isolated populations.

Identical Ancestors Point. A few thousand years before the MRCA, all humans who were then alive either left no descendants alive today or were common ancestors of all humans alive today. Each present-day human has exactly the same set of genealogical ancestors who were alive at that time.

Adam and Eve - If you accept the Biblical account of Adam and Eve, they are the common ancestors of every person.
 

11 Gnostic Studies on the Web-- http://gnosis.org/lilith.htm

a) Having decided to give Adam a helpmeet lest he should be alone of his kind, God put him into a deep sleep, removed one of his ribs, formed it into a woman, and closed up the wound, Adam awoke and said: 'This being shall be named "Woman", because she has been taken out o f man. A man and a woman shall be one flesh.' The title he gave her was Eve, 'the Mother of All Living''. [1]

(b) Some say that God created man and woman in His own image on the Sixth Day, giving them charge over the world; [2]  but that Eve did not yet exist. Now, God had set Adam to name every beast, bird and other living thing. When they passed before him in pairs, male and female, Adam-being already like a twenty-year-old man-felt jealous of their loves, and though he tried coupling with each female in turn, found no satisfaction in the act. He therefore cried: 'Every creature but I has a proper matel', and prayed God would remedy this injustice. [3]

 (c) God then formed Lilith, the first woman, just as He had formed Adam, except that He used filth and sediment instead of pure dust. From Adam's union with this demoness, and with another like her named Naamah, Tubal Cain's sister, sprang Asmodeus and innumerable demons that still plague mankind. Many generations later, Lilith and Naamah came to Solomon's judgement seat, disguised as harlots of Jerusalem'. [4]

 (d) Adam and Lilith never found peace together; for when he wished to lie with her, she took offence at the recumbent posture he demanded. 'Why must I lie beneath you?' she asked. 'I also was made from dust, and am therefore your equal.' Because Adam tried to compel her obedience by force, Lilith, in a rage, uttered the magic name of God, rose into the air and left him…

e) Some say that Lilith ruled as queen in Zmargad, and again in Sheba; and was the demoness who destroyed job's sons. [7] Yet she escaped the curse of death which overtook Adam, since they had parted long before the Fall. Lilith and Naamah not only strangle infants but also seduce dreaming men, any one of whom, sleeping alone, may become their victim. [8]

 (f) Undismayed by His failure to give Adam a suitable helpmeet, God tried again, and let him watch while he built up a woman's anatomy: using bones, tissues, muscles, blood and glandular secretions, then covering the whole with skin and adding tufts of hair in places. The sight caused Adam such disgust that even when this woman, the First Eve, stood there in her full beauty, he felt an invincible repugnance. God knew that He had failed once more, and took the First Eve away. Where she went, nobody knows for certain. [9]

 (g) God tried a third time, and acted more circumspectly. Having taken a rib from Adam's side in his sleep, He formed it into a woman; then plaited her hair and adorned her, like a bride, with twenty-four pieces of jewellery, before waking him. Adam was entranced. [10]

(h) Some say that God created Eve not from Adam's rib, but from a tail ending in a sting which had been part of his body. God cut this off, and the stump-now a useless coccyx-is still carried by Adam's descendants. [11]

 (i) Others say that God's original thought had been to create two human beings, male and female; but instead He designed a single one with a male face looking forward, and a female face looking back. Again He changed His mind, removed Adam's backward-looking face, and built a woman's body for it. [12]

 (j) Still others hold that Adam was originally created as an androgyne of male and female bodies joined back to back. Since this posture made locomotion difficult, and conversation awkward, God divided the androgyne and gave each half a new rear. These separate beings He placed in Eden, forbidding them to couple. [13]
 

12 Sumerian 2--http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/sumerianmyth.htm

The Creation of Humans

This poem begins with a description of how the gods had to work for their bread by digging out irrigation canals:

     The gods were dredging the rivers,

       were piling up their silt

       on projecting bends--

     and the gods lugging the clay

       began complaining  (Jacobsen, Harps 154)

Nammu, who is either the sea or the goddess of the riverbed, goes to her son Enki, who is asleep in the deep (the Apsu) and entreats him to rise from his bed and "fashion servants of the gods" (Kramer, History Begins 109).  Enki, who after all is the god of wisdom, thinks of the germinating powers of the clay and water of the abyss, and he tells Nammu to have some womb-goddesses pinch off this clay and have some "princely fashioners" thicken it, so she can mold it or give birth to it:

     Mix the heart of the clay that is over the abyss,

     The good and princely fashioners will thicken the clay,

     You, [Nammu] do you bring the limbs into existence;

     Ninmah [earth-mother or birth goddess] will work above you,

     The goddesses [of birth] .  . . will stand by you at your fashioning;

     O my mother, decree its [the newborn's] fate,

     Ninmah will bind upon it the image (?) of the gods,

     It is man . . . .    (Kramer, History Begins 109)

Jacobsen translates these apparently difficult to decipher lines somewhat differently, seeing a "birth chair" where Kramer sees the "image" of the gods.  Jacobsen's translation also stresses that the fashioning of the newborn imitates in some way the growth of a fetus in the womb.  Jacobsen translates the moment of birth like this (words and letters in brackets represent gaps in the original text):

     [Without] the sperm

       of a ma[le]

       she gave [birth]

       to offspri[ng.,]

       to the [em]bryo

       of mankind.   (Harps 157)

Thus man was created to relieve the gods of their work.  The gods then decide to have a feast to celebrate their new creation, and Enki and Ninmah begin to drink beer and start "to feel good inside."  Ninmah boasts that she, as the goddess of birth and gestation, is the one who determines whether "the build of men" (Harps 158) turns out well or misshapen.  Enki responds that he, the clever god, can find places in society for even the most handicapped people.  Ninmah molds from the clay a man with shaking hands, but Enki places him as an attendant of the king.  Ninmah next makes a blind man, but Enki makes him a singer of tales.  Ninmah makes a person named "Hobbled-by-twisting-ankles," but Enki finds work for him with the metal workers (c.f. Hephaistos).  Ninmah continues to make handicapped people:  "a person unable to control his urine, a barren woman, a being with neither male nor female organs, and so forth, but in each case Enki was able to find a place in society for the [creature] and to ensure it a living" (Jacobsen, Treasures 114).  The woman who could not give birth, for example, was found a place overseeing the weavers in "the queen's household" (Harps 161), while the sexless being was to "stand before the king" (Kramer, History Begins 109-110).

Knowing that she cannot outsmart the clever Enki, Ninmah throws down the clay in defeat.  Now Enki decides to make his own misshapen being, and he challenges Ninmah to "determine / the mode of being / of that newborn one!" (Harps 162).  Enki, in a manner which is not all that clear causes a creature to be born whose name is "the-day-was-far-off."  In other words, the creature is born prematurely, before its fated birthdate.  This creature is also extremely deformed:  "its hands, having the shakes, / could not put food / to its mouth, / the spine was crushed, / the anus closed up, / the hips were brittle, / the feet (with their) skin breaking / unable to walk the fields " (Harps 162).  Ninmah tries to feed the creature some bread, but it is so weak and feeble that it cannot reach out for the loaves she offers it.  It cannot sit or stand or even bend its knees.  Ninmah is horrified at what Enki has made and curses him for it.  The remainder of the tablet is broken, but apparently Ninmah realizes that if such unformed and deformed beings are born with any sort of regularity, people will stop worshipping her.  Enki tries to appease her wrath by admitting that the deformed being "is lacking, in truth, / your work, Ninmah; [he] was born to me / incomplete" (Harps 165).  The poem ends with a song of praise for Enki's male generative powers and for his cleverness, but the story itself seems to indicate that Enki cannot make a functional being without the help of the birth goddess Ninmah.  Notice how the story starts with the gods needing to work for bread and ends with a creature unable to accept bread.
 

13 Athena and Eve--https://answersingenesis.org/bible-characters/adam-and-eve/athena-and-eve/

There is no Creator-God in the Greek religious system. The ancient Greek religious system is about getting away from the God of Genesis, and exalting man as the measure of all things. You may think to yourself that the Greeks are exalting gods, not man; but haven’t you ever wondered why the Greek gods looked exactly like humans? The answer is the obvious one: for the most part, the gods represented the Greeks’ (and our) human ancestors. Greek religion was thus a sophisticated form of ancestor worship. You have no doubt heard of the supposedly great philosopher, Sokrates. In Plato’s Euthydemus, he referred to Zeus, Athena, and Apollo as his ‘gods’ and his ‘lords and ancestors’.1

Greek stories about their origins are varied and sometimes contradictory until their poets and artists settle upon Zeus and Hera as the couple from whom the other Olympian gods and mortal men are descended. This brother/sister and husband/wife pair, the king and queen of the gods, are a match for the Adam and Eve of Genesis.

This couple is the beginning of the family of man, and the origin of the family of the Greek gods, Zeus and Hera. Figure 3 [below] shows us Zeus and his wife Hera, sculpted on the east frieze of the Parthenon, c. 438 BC. With no Creator-God in the Greek religious system, the first couple advances to the forefront…

According to the Book of Genesis, Eve is the mother of all living humans, and the wife of Adam. Since God is the Father of both Adam and Eve, some consider them to be brother and sister as well. After they had both eaten the fruit, Adam named his wife Eve (Chue in Hebrew which means ‘Living’) and Genesis 3:20 explains why: ‘"… for she becomes mother of all the living."’† In a hymn of invocation, the 6th-century BC lyric poet, Alcaeus, refers to Hera as panton genethla, or ‘mother of all’.2 As the first mother, the Greeks worshipped Hera as goddess of childbirth; as the first wife, the Greeks worshipped her as the goddess of marriage…

From the Judeo-Christian standpoint, the taking of the fruit by Eve and Adam at the serpent’s behest was shameful, a transgression of Yahweh’s commandment. From the Greek standpoint, however, the taking of the fruit was a triumphant and liberating act which brought to mankind the serpent’s enlightenment. To the Greeks, the serpent freed mankind from bondage to an oppressive God, and was therefore a saviour and illuminator of our race...

The Greeks worshipped Zeus as both saviour and illuminator; they called him Zeus Phanaios which means one who appears as light and brings light. The light that he brought to the ancient Greeks was the serpent’s light that he received when he ate the fruit from the serpent’s tree.

The Greeks remembered the original paradise. They called it the Garden of the Hesperides, and they associated Zeus and Hera with its enticing ease, and with a serpent-entwined apple tree.

The Hesperides, the spirit-beings associated with this tree, its apples, and its serpent, get their name from Hespere in Greek which means evening, and that signifies the west where the sun sets. This matches the Genesis account which describes civilization developing to the east of Eden. A return to Eden would mean travelling west. The Greeks put the Garden of the Hesperides, with its serpent-entwined apple tree, in the far west.

Some mythologists have mistaken the Hesperides for guardians of the tree, but they certainly are not. Their body language, their easy actions and their very names serve the purpose of establishing what kind of a garden this is: a wonderful, carefree place.
 

14. The Immortal Myth of Adam and Eve-- http://thetorah.com/the-immortal-myth-of-adam-and-eve/

Allusions to Adam and Eve appear in the opening sequence of television shows, in perfume ads, pop songs, and in computer company logos.[1] Politicians and social activists rally around and against slogans like “Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve.”  Conservatives invoke readings of Eden in support of a “family values” agenda.  Feminists wishing to redeem the biblical text for women today re-read and even re-write Eve’s story. 

New versions of Eden also appear in counter-cultural movements, as Aryan Nations groups retell the myth to justify their own political and social agendas.  Through it all, Adam, Eve, and serpent are used to convey messages about sex, gender, and the origins of evil.  Such timeless relevance of an ancient tale is the primary function of a good myth.

All over the internet, various websites attack “common myths and misconceptions” about everything from the idea that humans have only five senses to the fatality of consuming poinsettia leaves, to debunking the “myth” that marijuana use is detrimental to one’s health.  But literary critics don’t define the genre of “myths” as untruths. 

Myth, as many anthropologists have noted, is a vital tool for understanding a culture’s ideals, values, customs, beliefs, concerns, and fears.  Referring to a literary work as “myth” is a way of highlighting how its elements reflect cultural truths.  As cultures making use of a given myth change, the accompanying myths sometimes change, but often do not—“only” their interpretation changes. Following Adam and Eve through history demonstrates the enduring power of myth, its firm place in human consciousness and community, and its dual function as both social glue and social mirror…

In the ancient Near East, mother goddesses – some with names linguistically related to “Eve”[3]–were often associated positively with a tree of life, and with serpents as immortal symbols of the earth’s fertility and bounty.  Thus, the biblical Eden story story may well have been a purposeful inversion of beliefs in a mother goddess, giver of life and wisdom, in the service of a growing monotheistic impulse toward a male God who creates alone…

The tale of Adam, Eve, and the serpent may be a good story to tell your children; it explains why snakes don’t have legs, why people wear clothes, why women are to be subordinate to men and have pain in childbirth, and why men have to work hard to bring food out of the earth. Over the years it took on a life of its own; the original author of this text could not possibly have imagined what would become of it. 

In the biblical author’s world – and that of his (or her) audience for many centuries afterwards – there were no apples, no devil, and no original sin. For the author, evil arose from human imperfection, corruption, and moral bankruptcy (as, for example, in Gen 6:5-7, 11-13). So where do the apple, the devil, and original sin come from, if they are not in the biblical text?  A very long history of interpretation.
 

15 The Generations of the Heavens and of the Earth: Egyptian Deities in the Garden of Eden--http://ggreenberg.tripod.com/writings/w-egypt-eden.htm

This paper attempts to introduce the idea that the biblical Creation stories, from the dawn of Creation through Noah’s Flood, derive from Egyptian cosmogony, more specifically, the Theban doctrine of Creation. Thebes came late to the political scene in Egypt and its view of Creation attempted to incorporate the ideas of Memphis, Heliopolis and Hermopolis into a new cosmology that subordinated the chief deities of those cults to Amen, chief deity of Thebes.

The Theban doctrine holds that in the beginning there was the great primeval flood known as Nu or the Nun. The god Amen then appeared in a series of forms, first as an Ogdoad, then as Tatenen (a Memphite name for Ptah identified with the primeval hill), then as Atum, who created the first gods, then as Re. After this he created humanity, organized the Ennead, appointed the four male members of the Hermopolitan Ogdoad as his divine fathers and priests, and appointed Shu as their leader. Another Theban tradition holds that Osiris built the first city at Thebes.

To equate all these ideas with the biblical Creation stories would be a massive undertaking, far beyond the scope of this short paper. Therefore I will deal only with a small piece of this very large subject. In this paper I will just compare some elements of the Heliopolitan cycle with the biblical account of Adam and Eve and the second day of Creation.

This formulation clearly implies a pagan throwback to the idea of Heaven and Earth as deities, but biblical scholars, determined to preserve the monotheistic view of biblical history, are reluctant to accept such an interpretation. Instead, they wrench the phrase out of context and assert that it simply means “things that are to follow” or “the history of.”

A second major difficulty with Gen. 2:4-5 is the time frame in question. The passage indicates that the stories we are about to read take place “in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens,” and before the appearance of plant life. When is that day?

Biblical scholars tell us that the preamble refers to stories that take place after the seven days of Creation. But reading the passage literally and in context, it quite explicitly states that the stories we are about to read occurred on the day that God made the earth and the heavens and before the appearance of plant life. That time frame is clearly defined in the account of the seven days of Creation.