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Apologetics- 1


In this series of pages on apologetics we are presenting the views of Dr. Johnson C. Phillips and Dr. Saneesh Cherian.  There are other great books and other media outlets on apologetics so feel free to compare what they say and what you know with the words of these two authors.

We have this information because they were part of our curriculum when we attended their theological graduate school some years ago. We would like to share it with you in case some of our readers do not understand what apologetics is and how it is used.

We hope that you will learn from these words and become better able to defend your faith.
Introduction To Integrated Christian Apologetics

The word "apologetics" confuses many into thinking that it refers to some kind of

apologizing. Actually this word is not derived from the English world "apology", but

from the Greek word "apologia", which is a word referring to "making a defense".

Apologetics is a general term, signifying a formal defense of any kind. On the other

hand, Christian Apologetics is that branch of Christian theology that answers the

question "is Christianity believable". Integrated Apologetics stands for the special

approach developed by us in our course material where we integrate the best from

all schools of thought in Christian Apologetics.

In the past four centuries, all kinds of religious and spiritual beliefs have come

under intense attack at the hands of radical philosophers and critics. Of this assault,

the Christian faith has received the major portion because of a number of historical

reasons some of which will be mentioned later.

These criticisms against the Christian faith have received so much media coverage

that even a good number of well informed non Christians are aware of some of the

major charges labeled against the Christian faith. Interestingly, books published

against the Christian faith and sold from secular shops become bestsellers even in

countries where the buyers are not Christians. This is the result of all this adverse

publicity against the Christian faith.

Today all around us there is an atmosphere where criticism of the Bible and related

subjects is widespread. Most of the Christian students have to face these attacks

from other students in some form or other. It is quite common to meet Christian

college-students who are perplexed by questions that are hurled against their faith.

The volley of questions come with such high frequency that they find themselves at

a loss in answering even a portion of them all. Moreover, since most of them never

faced these questions before this assault, they usually do not know what to think

and what to answer. Further, they often fall into the trap of thinking that if they do

not know the answer, then correct or satisfactory answers do not exist.

Once a person erroneously concludes that answers do not exist for the questions

raised against the Bible, his own faith is the next victim. His faith in the inspiration,

authority, and the infallibility of the Scriptures suffer very much. He then finds

himself in a split mentality: he knows that it is these Scriptures which have brought

the message of true salvation to him, but at the same time he does not know what

all things written in this Book are believable !

Apologetics is the solution to this problem. A person who has some background in

the Christian apologetics can help this person to see the answers to the problems

and questions which he is facing. Further, a Christian Apologist can pass on

information to the doubting person, using which he can better face the people who

raise questions against the Bible.

The last four to five centuries have been a time in history when anti Christian

philosophies and thought patterns have flourished to the full extent in Christian

societies. Humanism, a philosophy in which man has been elevated to the position

of God, is the philosophy of the present times. It is the foundation of almost all the

present-day ways of thinking and education. Therefore, students who have been

brought up in any of the present day schools or colleges learns many things which

are contrary to the Word of God. By the time a person passes out of his college, he

accumulates hundreds of such ideas against the Christian faith. The cumulative

weight of these ideas give so much doubt to young believers that all over the world

they are struggling to overcome problems of distrust and doubt.

No individual can possibly solve each and every doubt that these people have, but

with the help of apologetics they can definitely help the people in doubt. An

apologist can give answers to a good number of their problems, and can then teach

them the basics of the humanistic philosophy. This will help the inquirers not only to

overcome their doubts, but will also help them to see the root causes of the

problems. This will also give them a capability to deal effectively with at least a

good number of questions as they come to them in future.

There is no person in this world who does not face problems. Everyone faces

puzzles, questions, and fears of different kinds. Such difficult situations will not go

away merely by ignoring them or by pretending that they do not exist. Facing a

problem is a difficult affair, and people do resort to tactics which avoid them instead

of facing them. This can be seen frequently in relation to the Bible. The attacks

against the Scriptures come from such diverse fields and sometimes from people of

such high learning that it becomes difficult to answer all of them. No one can ever

hope to master all the disciplines of study from which these questions are raised. It

is precisely this difficulty which induces many people to avoid facing the issues. But

there is actually no need for doing this. Acquiring the basic tools of Christian

apologetics will be sufficient to face most of the attacks.

No person can ever hope to answer all the questions that are put to him, but every

Christian should definitely know something about what godly men are doing in the

field of Christian apologetics. Today the Christian society has numerous highly

qualified and dedicated men belonging to all disciplines of study who are trying to

answer each and every question that has been hurled against the Bible. No

individual can face all of it, and it is natural for individuals to become fearful of

these attacks, but once a person realizes that so many people are working on these

problems, then he can rest assured that it will not be long before the answer is

published. In fact, today there are several thousand scholars around the world who

are publishing their conclusions in defense of the Christian faith through hundreds

of professional journals and popular magazines. They are accessible to anyone who

is willing to take interest.

The Bible shall always be attacked, and there will always be people whose faith will

be shaken by such attacks. Only the proper use of Christian Apologetics will help

such people.
A Biblical Basis for Christian Apologetics

We have already seen that Christian Apologetics is that branch of Christian studies

that deals with the defense of the Christian faith. This is fully a Biblical activity

because it has been advised and demonstrated in the Bible at various places. For

example, the Scripture commands: "Always be prepared to make defense to any

one who calls you to account for the hope that is in you" (1 Peter 3:15, RSV). This

means that making a defense of one's faith to those who question the Christian

faith is a part of our spiritual duty. The word "Apologetics" comes from the Greek

word APOLOGIA used here, and translated as "defense". So apologetics is a

defending of the faith, not making of apologies as some might wrongly conclude

from the English word 'apologetics'.

A good definition of the character and function of Christian apologetics can be found

in Scripture when it says: "We live in the flesh, of course, but the muscles that we

fight with are not flesh. Our war is not fought with weapons of flesh, yet are strong

enough, in God's cause, to demolish sophistries, and the arrogance that tries to

resist the knowledge of God ; every thought is our prisoner, captured to be brought

into obedience to Christ" (II Corinthians 10:3-6, Phillips)

Almost all of the book of Job is an apologetics to justify God's dealings with man. In

the face of opposition from his friends and family, Job tries to vindicate the reasons

for his loyalty and confidence in the Lord. He makes it very clear that the Lord of

Israel was not like the gods of pagans around them; rather, He is a faithful God

who would never fail those who trust in Him.

Psalms 14 and 19 are also apologetic in character. Romans 1:20 confirms this when

it says that the marvels of the nature are enough to indicate the existence of an

intelligent and all powerful God. The message which the Holy Spirit delivered

through Paul in Acts 17 is another example where an apologetic approach is used to

preach the gospel to skeptical unbelievers.

APOLOGETIC APPROACHES IN THE BIBLE: Though the Bible places great stress

upon faith and belief, and though it condemns deliberate skepticism and unbelief, it

does not speak against reason and investigation. The Bible encourages the use of

reason and investigation when they are done sincerely and as an aid to honest

inquiry. Both the Old as well as the New Testament furnish ample evidence of this.

What's more, God Himself gives evidence in numerous places to lead people into


When God commanded Moses to go to Pharaoh, He gave two signs to Moses so that

he could establish that it is God who sent Him. Whether Pharaoh believed or not is

a different subject, but we should not ignore that God provided demonstration when

Pharaoh asked for it. We see the same thing in the case of Gideon who twice

requested for signs, and was granted the request both the times. We see the same

in the case of Hezekiah who was given a choice of signs to confirm that the Lord

has spoken (1 Kings 20:5-12).

When Daniel and his friends spoke to the man who was in-charge over them, he

suggested that this steward should "prove" (investigate and conclude) them for ten

days. Again this is the experimental approach, where a decision is taken on the

basis of investigation.

Jesus and his biographers repeatedly stressed that the primary purpose of the

miracles performed by Jesus were to demonstrate who He was, and not merely to

bring health to the world. In many other places the Scripture stress that

the miracles in the New Testament church were meant to ATTEST that God was

behind all these things. Though Jesus chided "doubting Thomas" for his skepticism,

He did not refuse to give proof. Rather, He invited Thomas and even other disciples

to examine Him physically and conclude that He is risen.

Thus the Bible furnishes ample examples to indicate the necessity and the

important role played by apologetics for the Christians as well as non Christian

hearers of God's message. Though the Bible condemns unbelief, it encourages

sincere inquiry. And that is where Apologetics plays an important role.

APOLOGETICS AND POLEMICS: An important companion of Apologetics is

Polemics. While Apologetics deals with objections and attacks originating from

people outside the Christian faith, Polemics deals with attacks originating from

within the Church. Many of the readers might be surprised when we mention

attacks from "within" the church because none of us expects our own people to

attack our blessed faith. However, people have always existed within the Jewish

and the Christian faith who have attacked the Old and the New Testament.

These attacks come in two forms. First, in the form of distorted Bible interpretation.

Second, through those false cults who claim that they are a true Christian group.

People who attack the Bible from inside the Church would include everyone who

teach perverted doctrines. During the New Testament period this included the

Ebionites, Pelegians, Montanists, Nestorians, Arians, and many others from within

the Church. At the dawn of the twenty-first century this would include the radicals,

the ecumenists, the Christian New Agers. This would also include those who teach

salvation through baptism, those who attack the person of Christ

(Smithism/Poonenism), and those who Hinduize Christian doctrines (Prajapati

Proponents, Christian Vedantists), etc.

False Cults which claim to be Christian but who still attack the fundamentals of the

Christian faith include, Jehovah Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists, Mormons, TPM

(Ceylon Pentecostal Mission), Roman Catholics, The Toronto Movement, etc. Their

number is growing constantly, and the leaven of their erroneous teachings is also


Though Apologetics and Polemics are two different activities, their ultimate purpose

is one and the same: to refute error and to establish truth. Till a few decades ago

they could easily be separated from each other so that those who practice

Apologetics did not need to know about Polemics, and those who specialized in

Polemics did not have to study apologetics. But no more ! All kinds of attacks

against the Christian faith now borrow insights from each other, so that today every

apologist must be an expert in polemics, and every polemicist must be an expert in

History Of Christian Apologetics

Many people have this misunderstanding that Christian Apologetics and Polemics

are subjects of recent origin. Nothing could be farther from truth. Biblical

Apologetics and Polemics are as old as the Bible itself is. Both the Old as well as the

New Testament give us ample evidence of this.

APOLOGETICS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT: Attacks against the Word of God

started as early as in the Old Testament period. Within the Old Testament record

we can see many people who questioned whether the God of the Israelites is the

true God, and we notice that in many cases God provided them suitable answers

and demonstrations. Some of these proofs have been mentioned on the previous

pages of this book, thus a repetition is not needed.

It must be added, however, that the listing from the Old Testament given above is

only a sample. The actual number of apologetic passages and incidents in the Old

Testament is too numerous to be listed here in this book.

APOLOGETICS AMONG JEWISH FATHERS: The Jewish Fathers and Leaders had

to face much opposition from the pagans because the Bible emphasizes many

things which are resented by the Pagans. For example, right from Genesis, the

Bible teaches that man is a sinner, totally depraved, and unable to save himself.

Grace is the only means available for salvation. This irritated and irked the pagans

who had a Universalist theology.

Universalism teaches the salvation of everyone in the world irrespective of his

religion. No exclusiveness of doctrines and practices is accepted by them. Thus it

was natural for the Universalist pagans in Old Testament times to attack the Bible.

Though writing materials were not in abundance at that time, many of these critics

of the Bible produced large numbers of books to attack the Old Testament. History

is our witness that people who attacked the Bible always got great reception from

people, and consequently these critics were able to spread their messages very

wide. Many of the Jewish Rabbis and scholars wrote countless volumes to counter

the charges brought by these critics. One of the best known Jewish apologetic

works is Contra Apion, written by the first century Army officer and historian

Flavious Josephus. This book is easily available today in many Seminary libraries as

part of the Complete Works Of Josephus. Archaeologists have discovered numerous

other Jewish apologetic works also.

APOLOGETICS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT: With the establishment of the New

Testament Church came a new breed of heretics and critics. This was partially

because of the extended influence of pagan philosophies coupled with easy

availability of writing materials. The rise of professionals called "scribes" also made

it possible for writings to be copied rapidly and economically. Thus these heretics

were able to make their voice heard widely.

Another reason for the rise of critics, heretics and heretical movements was the

New Testament itself. Till the book of Malachi, doctrinal subject were taught

indirectly and often in a veiled manner. However, in New Testament doctrines

related to man's sin, total depravity, salvation by grace alone and faith alone, etc.

were proclaimed more clearly. All the unique Biblical doctrines received clearer

explanation and exposition in the New Testament. This made a lot of people


As long as the divine message was partially veiled, these critics did not worry much.

But clear proclamation to the Biblical message exposed their errors, biases, and

prejudices clearly. No longer could they maintain their Universalism, Humanism,

Accommodationsim, etc. No longer could they maintain their brand of theology,

seeing that now the fundamental tenets of biblical theology were spelled out


There were a large number of people who wanted to be called Christians, but who

did not want to accept these biblical doctrines. Many of them were converts from

various kinds of heathen faiths. They did not want to abandon their loyalty to the

philosophies and theologies which they had believed before coming to the Church.

Further, many of them loved the freedom for sensuality that was offered by their

previously believed pagan philosophies. Thus using all their literary and theological

skill they tried to popularize their varieties of perverted teachings. The main aim

was self-justification.

Thus there were Judizers who created problems in Galatia and other places. The

Epistle To Galatians is an refutation of their teachings. There were Gnostics who

tried to synthesize Christian theology with occult philosophies. The Epistle To

Colossians is an apologetic against them. The Epistle To Hebrews is an apologetic

against another heresy. Jude had to remind his readers to contend for the faith

against those who would like to distort the Christian message. Peter had to warn his

readers against those who mocked at statements in portions of the New Testament,

and so on. Thus throughout the New Testament documents we notice the

opposition of scornful people and heretics at distorting biblical truths. Instead of

ignoring them, the New Testament writers wrote extensively to expose error, to

condemn it, and also to establish truth.

APOLOGETICS AMONG CHURCH FATHERS: The availability of New Testament

documents irritated Christians not only in the first century, but also in the centuries

that followed. Wanting to hold on simultaneously to both the Bible and their own

pagan philosophies, many of them spread heretical doctrines using all means

available to them. We have already mentioned the name of Gnostics, Nestorians,

Ebionites, Montanists, Pelegains, Arians, and many others. Several Church councils

gathered together to condemn these heresies, and that is one way in which these

false teachings could be suppressed.

Many of the heretics were dedicated writers, and they produced a large number of

voluminous books to spread their ideas. Consequently, the Church Fathers of the

same period were also forced to write lengthy books to refute these errors. A large

amount of these heretical writings and apologetic refutations have been discovered

by archaeologists.

The availability of the New Testament documents irked not only the rebel

Christians, but irritated many non Christian writers. Most of these writers were

inclined to atheism, universalism, humanism, hedonism, or narcissism. Since the

New Testament documents are totally contrary to these philosophies, they found it

necessary (as self-justification) to attack the Bible.

Further, the Bible is the only religious book in the world that insists that every

human is a born sinner, totally depraved, and unable to anything at all for his own

salvation. This, coupled with the New Testament insistence of Bible Alone, Christ

Alone, Grace Alone, and Faith Alone, also irritated many of them. Further, the fast

spread of the Christian faith, and the deep commitment of these new converts also

overwhelmed many of these non Christian critics. Fearing that this spread of gospel

would soon convert the whole world into the Christian faith they launched out their

tirades against the Bible, Jesus Christ, and Christianity.

A notable example is the rationalist writer Porphyry. Living in Sicily in the third

century, he wrote a work entitled "Against Christianity". What is surprising is the

size of this work which occupied a solid FIFTEEN volumes !! Obviously, such prolific

writers were able to influence a large number of people. But here again the Church

Fathers did not sit silent. Rather, they courageously combated Porphyry and similar

rationalists and produced hundreds of volumes of Christian Apologetics and

Polemics. Were it not for the warrior mentality of these Fathers, a lot more of

damage could have been done by these rationalists.

MODERN CREATIONISM AND APOLOGETICS: Though Christian Apologetics and

Polemics was strong in the first five centuries of Church, it became somewhat

dormant for almost a thousand years. This was the time when the Roman Catholic

Church ruled the Christian world with an iron rod. Rather than reasoning and

arguing with the dissenters, the Church found it easier and better just to kill them.

Opposing voices were not heard much in public because of this life-threatening


Today very few people know that from about middle of the fourth century to the

middle of the fourteenth century, the Roman Catholic church indulged in a great

struggle for ecclesiastical as well as temporal power. In this struggle they silenced,

tortured, and killed millions of dissenting people. A revolt brewed in the hearts of

people, specially of the thinkers in Europe. However, the dictatorial rule of the

Church prevented them from expressing themselves. Thus when the Reformation

gave them the freedom coveted by all thinkers, they came out in torrents against

the Church.

Since most bitter people did not understand the difference between the Roman

Catholic church, the true church of Christ, and the Christ of the Bible, they opposed

and rejected all of these things simultaneously. It was a case of throwing away the

baby with the bath-water. This rejection of Christianity was coupled with the rise of

a host of anti-Christian thinkers, philosophies, and movements. By the time the

nineteenth century arrived, the number of such anti-Christian people and

movements became simply mind boggling. What united them all was their

opposition to the Bible and Christianity.

However, since the idea of creation was widely accepted by the masses (including

most of the educated people), it was difficult for them to overthrow the authority of

the Bible. They were convinced that only a rejection of the Bible would solve the

problem. By the middle of the nineteenth century there was a preparation of hearts

and an expectation in the air that Christianity can now be challenged. But the

crucial factor which could do this was nowhere in sight.

The Theory Of Evolution was there already, but it was there only in philosophical

form. The rise of modern science had convinced them that even the best

philosophical speculation has no feet to stand upon till it is given a scientific basis.

It was just this time when Charles Darwin proposed his Theory Of Evolution. For the

first time someone was able to propose this hypothesis in the form of a theory of

SCIENCE ! That was the reason why all of these dissenting movements eagerly and

immediately swallowed Darwin's theory and he became a hero overnight.

Things changed rapidly and this theory took theology also into its influence by the

close of the nineteenth century. The same was the period when infidels with

degrees in theology were coming into positions of power in German universities.

Some of these European and American evolutionists soon persuaded some

theologians, specially in Germany, that evolution is a fact. A few of these

theologians then began persuading other theologians and seminary teachers that

now Christians must now accept evolution as a fact. The bolder theologians among

them even started teaching that portions of the Bible that deal with this record of

creation should be abandoned altogether. Germany provided an ideal ground for

breeding these thinkers because German theological institutes are controlled and

funded by government money. Government is interested only in academic degrees,

not in whether a person is born again and committed to the Bible.

Uncommitted radical German theologians had plenty of degrees, but not Christ in

their hearts. Thus they began to act as mercenaries, destroying belief in the Bible.

Having a clear agenda to destroy belief in the Bible, they aimed at destroying the

foundations of Christianity first. Further, since Government funding was liberal, they

had the financial muscle-power to print and spread their ideas worldwide. This is

how the German atheists (though they called themselves Christians) were able to

influence all the world through their theology.

However, not everyone was willing to write off the Bible completely. Many were

interested more in keeping both the beliefs together. Acceptance of evolution would

make them respectable in the eyes of theological infidels, but at the same time

acceptance of creation would keep them in the confines of evangelical Christianity.

Thus began an era of compromises. This is the era when compromise

interpretations of Genesis came into vogue. Many of these interpretations became

widespread, partially through the influence of Scoffield, and partially through the

influence of compromising seminaries.

Compromise is never good for truth, because it is truth that suffers most when it is

mixed with falsehood. Thus this mingling of evolution with creation eventually

destroyed the Biblical foundations to such a level that radicals, humanists,

evolutionists, rationalists, and atheists had a field day attacking Christians. Things

came to such alarming state that in the first half of the twentieth century it was

difficult to find qualified theologians in USA or Europe who would openly defend the

Biblical story of creation. Since the Indian evangelical theology was mostly a copy

of the Western theology, the Indian theologians also avoided defending the Biblical

doctrine of Creation.

A few American Seventh Day Adventists were the only people who were willing to

defend the idea of creation during this period. However, there was a small remnant

in some conservative churches in USA who were willing to take a strong stand. In

the first decade of the twentieth century they produced 12 volumes of books known

as "The Fundamentals". While only a minority of scholars at that time identified

themselves with the stand taken in these books, their influence eventually helped to

turn the tide in favour of the Bible.

American evangelical Christians have began to notice in the fifties that compromise

is a slow poison that ultimately destroys respect for truth. Some of them came

together and started writing aggressively on themes defending the historical and

scientific reliability of the Bible. This gave birth to the modern interest in

Apologetics and Creationism. At the dawn of the twenty-first century the influence

of this revival has spread all over the world, and today more than one hundred and

fifty organizations function around the world, devoted solely to apologetics. Their

influence has be so strong that a large number of Seminaries all around the world

have begun assert the historical and scientific reliability of the Bible.

CREATIONISM IN INDIA:Indian theological situation has many a times been a

copy of what happens in the West. Thus with the rise of the German radical

theology, most of the theologians and seminary-trained people in the mainline

Protestant churches like the Lutherans, Methodists, CNI, CSI, and Marthoma

churches became theologically radical. The situation is so bad that evangelical

thinking is scorned in their seminaries, and it is difficult to discover theologians and

priests in their forties who have an evangelical commitment or who are willing to

take a stand for the historical and scientific reliability of the Bible.

The separatist churches like the Brethren, the Pentecostals, and the

Independent/Fundamental Baptists, and numerous other such evangelical groups

were a little better. They did not forsake their high view of the Bible. At the same

time almost all of them capitulated to compromise interpretations like Theistic

Evolution and Gap Theory. The influence of C. I. Scoffield is notable is spreading the

Gap Theory.

The first Indian to take a strong stand against the Theory Of Evolution was the late

Professor H. Enoch. This was in the early sixties. His English book Evolution Or

Creation influenced a large number of young Indians, specially through the EU and

EGF groups. He wrote many articles in the UESI student magazine also.

In the sixties and seventies no evangelical magazine was willing to publish articles

defending the historicity of the Bible or creation. The only exception was Cross And

Crown, a Pentecostal Magazine edited by Dr. Thomas Mathews from Udaipur,

Rajesthan. This magazine took a firm stand in favour of the accuracy of the Bible,

and carried such articles in it regularly for decades.

In the seventies a fellowship of scientists came up known initially as FOCMOS

(Fellowship Of Christian Men Of Science), and later as CSFI (Creation Scientists

Fellowship Of India). This organization soon became defunct because of lack of

commitment from members, and also because their interests lay elsewhere.

However, A. K. Skariah, the secretary of this movement continues to be a tireless

crusader for Creation and Apologetics.

A project known as Creation Research was founded by Dr. Johnson C. Philip in

1970. It functioned mainly through the publication of articles, and by the time of

the writing of this present book more than 1500 articles have been published in

more than 6 languages in almost a dozen countries around the world. This

movement is now known as Calvin School Of Apologetics And Theology, and it

offers full-length courses in creationism and apologetics.

At the time that Calvin School's predecessor was founded in 1970, almost no

standard Christian magazine in India was willing to publish articles defending

inerrancy and infallibility of the Bible. Nor were any Bible seminaries willing to teach

these subjects. However, three decades of crusading by Calvin School has given

rise to a significant movement in India for the defense of faith.

Another person who played a significant role in Christian Apologetics is Dr. Johnson

George. Born in Kerala and brought up in MP, he became fluent in more than one

language. Thus his writings on apologetical themes in several languages have had a

wide impact. Others who played a role in Apologetics would include Dr.

Ezhamkulam Samkutty, J. C. Dev, E. S. Thomas, and Paul K. Ramakrishnan. Their

apologetic writing ministries being in Malayalam, the spread of the articles remain

limited to Kerala.

An apologetics organization that entered India recently is RZIM, founded originally

in the USA by Dr. Ravi Zacharias. This society conducts training programmes all

over India. Their stand is highly biblical except on creation where they teach the

compromise-doctrine of day-age theory or even the gap theory. Their work tends to

be more polemical and rhetorical than analytic.

GAINS OF MODERN APOLOGETICS:The last half of the nineteenth century and

the first half of the twentieth century were times when most of the well-known

Christian seminaries, journals, and publishing houses compromised with

evolutionism and rationalism. This created such skepticism in the minds of the

average Christian that very few found the courage to take a public stand to defend

the Bible or their faith.

Ultimately all this left Christian believers (specially the young ones) in a very sorry

state in the rationalism-dominated times. This was one reason why Christians did

not have the courage to oppose the anti biblical, anti social, and anti morality

movements of the forties and fifties, which culminated in the acceptance of the

open immorality in the sixties in the USA. This immorality eventually invaded India


However, with the birth of the modern creationism and apologetics, a revival set in

motion among the evangelical Christians. This group became quite vocal and

aggressive in the sixties, and by seventies they started exerting significant

influence among theologians, thinkers, and the Bible teachers all over the world.

Thousands of apologetic books, hundreds of magazines, and tens of thousands of

articles have been produced defending the Bible since. In turn, this has started to

diminish the influence of rationalists and radicals on Christens.

From the middle of the nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth century the

rationalists had their heyday, snatching away millions of young people from their

Christian faith and commitment. The wounds of this loss can been seen in

Christendom even today, but at the same time this loss has been greatly minimized

now because of the work of Christian apologists.

Today anyone desiring to know about the Bible, and its connection with science,

evolution, history, archaeology, has read any number of books on this topic.

Literally thousands of titles are available, and he can choose anywhere from the

most simple books to the most technically advanced ones.

Thus the modern apologetics movement has been able to arrest the way in which

rationalists have been bleeding the Christian church. What is more, this movement

has been able to restore a lot of doubting people to strong faith. At the same time it

has been able to strengthen the faith of many believers who wanted to know what

the truth is in all this conflict.
The Importance Of Apologetics

Both the Old as well as the New Testament repeatedly emphasize that defense of

faith is an important part of spiritual life. This is why both the Testaments contain

numerous apologetic passages. The Jewish and the Church Fathers also understood

these benefits, and that is why they devoted considerable time to refuting

arguments brought against the Christian faith.

A perusal of the apologetic writings of the Bible and the Fathers would show that

the nature of the attacks changed in each generation, and that the reply had to be

tailored to meet the needs of each generation. In spite of this changing approach

and emphasis, the purpose of apologetics has remained unchanged for all the past



of Christian Apologetics keep changing with time, but the aims remains the same,

and they are:

1-To refute all the accusations that are brought against the Bible and the Christian


2-To demonstrate that only the Bible and the Christian way of life work in the actual

life, and that only the Bible and the Christian faith provide permanent peace and


3-To remove the sincere doubts in the hearts of believers and unbelievers, so that

the hindrances to the growth and establishing their faith are eliminated.

4-To provide SUFFICIENT evidence for achieving the above goals. It is necessary

for the apologist to understand the difference between sufficient and total proof.

Because man is finite and limited in his knowledge and perception, total proof is

never possible for anything. Total proof is possible only if every case in the world

related to the subject is examined. This is humanly not possible. This is why

scholars do not insist upon total proof for anything in any branch of science or

history. Rather, everything is decided on the basis of sufficient proof. The same is

the case with Christian Apologetics.
What Can Apologetics Do

Christian Apologetics is a constantly developing subject, with each day's arguments

becoming more and more powerful than the previous days. In a fast expanding

subject like this, people can often forget or overlook the role played by that subject.

This is specially apparent in Christian Apologetics.

Thus four different ways of thinking can be seen from time to time about Christian

Apologetics, not all of them valid or biblically sound. These are:

SKEPTICISM: Despite the widespread acceptance of apologetics, there is a small

group of people who are totally skeptical of Christian apologetics. They do not see

any value in apologetics, and even oppose the defense of Christian faith.

Most skeptics are people who avoid grappling with real-life problems. Further, they

totally overlook the numerous passages in the Bible itself which encourage

apologetic activity. This group is only a microscopic minority in Christendom, and

has no serious thinkers or theologians advocating it.

CHRISTIAN RATIONALISM: According to this view, reason can completely

demonstrate or prove the validity of the Christian position. Thus all what is needed

is to place a comprehensive set of arguments in favour of the Bible in front of a

person, and he would be able to see the truth. However, everyone knows that

things are not as optimistic as this viewpoint maintains.

Christian Rationalism places too much trust in the capacity of the human

intelligence/intellect in perceiving and recognizing truth. They have such faith in the

wisdom of the fallen man that they often exclude the need or role of the Holy Spirit

in illuminating the fallen and sinful human beings. Though very interesting, this

viewpoint has never been widely accepted among Christian apologists.

LOGICAL CHRISTIANITY:According to this view, reason is the starting point of

everything, and thus it goes a long way forward to the discovery of spiritual truth;

the last steps of this process are taken by faith. This viewpoint is more Biblical than

the first two, but it is still not fully correct.

Some proponents of the Logical Christianity view have gone to the extreme of

claiming that since God can be known and understood through natural revelation

alone, there is no need at all for the Bible. Christian Apologists have never/widely

accepted this viewpoint.

REASON DEFINITELY AIDS FAITH:This is the most widely held view among

evangelical and fundamentalist scholars. According to it, faith is the starting-point

of everything in the Christian faith; once faith is established, it can be shown to be

consistent with truth and reason. This is a viewpoint which is Biblically tenable and

acceptable, and it will form the backbone of this series of studies on apologetics.

Thus the evangelical Christian apologist uses apologetics, not to create faith but to

aid the creation and maintenance of faith. Even for this task he depends upon the

role played by God the Holy spirit in helping communicate the message to people.

The recipients also need the help of the Holy Spirit to understand and accept the

The Purpose Of Apologetics

As said in the previous section, Christian Apologetics is a fast growing discipline.

Thus it is possible to misunderstand or confuse the role, purpose, and contributions

of apologetics. Students should take great care in noting what apologetics is meant

to do, and also what it is not meant to do. The following points would help to clarify

some of these issues:

APOLOGETICS IS A MANWARD OPERATION: The purpose of developing a

discipline like apologetics is to defend the reliability of the Bible. It therefore

addresses both the reliability of scriptural narratives as well as the premises upon

which the Christian faith stands. However, Christian Apologetics is not an activity

directed towards the Bible. In other words, the purpose of Christian Apologetics is

not to defend the Bible with the attitude as though it is a helpless book. Rather, it is

a manward operation meant to help those who are perplexed or distressed due to

doubts. the Bible is defended to them, so that they might overcome the doubts that

they have.

The Scriptures are quite capable of self-defense. It has stood assaults successfully

for four thousand years while the critics and their contentions have been passing

away. Hence the purpose of apologetics is not to lend a helping hand to the

Scriptures, but to help the sincere inquirer. Thus the defense of the Bible is

presented not for preserving the Scriptures but to preserve the faith of the inquirer.

This is what's meant by "manward operation".

Understanding this manward operation is necessary both for helping those who

need apologetics and also for those who don't need it. Our churches have a lot of

people who never had a problem with their faith. They never doubted anything in

the Bible, nor did they have to face any attacks against their faith in Christ. Many of

these people can therefore become alarmed when they hear of "apologetics". They

 start thinking that the apologist is trying to defend the Bible for the sake of the

Bible -- to ESTABLISH that the Bible is the word of God.

Since these people almost never faced any serious challenges to their faith, and

since they know that the Scriptures do not need to be defended by man, they tend

to become skeptical or hostile towards apologetics. Unless the apologist explains to

them the manward role, there is a possibility of them rejecting apologetics due to

their ignorance.

Thus, to put the apprehensive people at ease, the apologist himself should first

understand the motive and aim of apologetics. Only this clear understanding will

help him to employ the methods of apologetics with the proper motive and in the

right manner to the right audience. He would understand that not every Christian is

his target. Only a person with this understanding will be able to put tense and

skeptical, but God-fearing, Christians at ease.

APOLOGETICS HAS LIMITS: Since apologetics is a manward operation, it can

never be used to prove that the Bible is the word of God. The best that it can do in

this matter is to point to the unusual character of the Bible in matters of unity,

accuracy, consistency, historicity and life-changing power. The rest is left to the

inquirer. Accepting the Bible as God's word comes only by an act of faith in which

apologetics can play a very supportive role.

Thus the purpose of apologetics is neither to establish the Bible as God's word, nor

to create faith in skeptical minds. Rather, its purpose is to aid a person to see that

the attacks brought up against the Bible are NOT valid. Once it is demonstrated

that statements of the Bible and the facts of science do not conflict with each other,

the way is cleared for the sincere inquirer for making the leap of faith.

BARRIER REMOVAL IS THE PRIME TARGET: The purpose of apologetics is not

creation of faith as much as it is to remove the barriers that hinder faith. Such a

removal of hindering factors often helps sincere inquirers to take a leap of faith and

accept the Lord Jesus as personal Saviour. For others, who are already saved, the

removal of barriers helps them to make a deeper commitment to Christ.

RATIONALIST DEMANDS MIGHT BE A BOON: Our rationalist age places a lot of

demands before a statement is accepted as true. Many people think that this

rationalism is sure to destroy the Bible. On the contrary, this is a blessing in

disguise. Many demands placed by rational thinkers give us excellent standards

with which to evaluate our statements objectively.

Enough information and evidence exists today to show, using the more sound

principles of rational thinking, that the Bible is a unique book. But no amount of

evidence can force a person, claiming to be a rationalist, against his will to believe.

Even though the rational content of Christianity is fully logical, accurate, and

reliable, Christian Apologetics is not meant for these people. Apologetics is meant

for those sincere seekers who want to know how reliable the rational content of the

Bible is.

PROCLAMATION IS NOT TO BE MINIMIZED: The saving message of the Bible

will bring much fruit whenever it is proclaimed -- even if there is much unbelief in

the air. Therefore the purpose of apologetics is not to establish the divinity of the

Bible first so that the gospel can follow. Unbelief will not change even if the most

amazing proofs are presented. The purpose of apologetics is, therefore, to help that

person who wants to abandon his unbelief that has been there due to his lingering

but sincere and honest doubts.


for deliberate unbelief. Rather, it is meant to serve as a cure for sincere doubts. It

can work wonders when presented at the right time in the right manner for helping

sincere inquirers.

There is no cure for unbelief except divine intervention. The best thing to do in such

cases is to use the sword of the Spirit repetitively. It will discern and pierce the

thoughts and intents of the heart. Apologetics, if needed, should be used only after

such a breakthrough.

APOLOGETICS HELPS SEEKERS MOST:Apologetics has a definite value when one

presents the gospel to unbelievers. Sincere and true seekers, whether from a

Christian or non Christian background, definitely have many doubts that hinder

them from taking the leap of faith necessary to trust in Christ. Apologetics helps by

removing these barriers.

However, the purpose of apologetics is not to prove the divinity of the Bible first, so

that the gospel could be presented on that basis. This would be only putting the

cart before the horse. The gospel message works by its own power, and there is not

need to convince the unbeliever of this power. At the same time, if he expresses his

doubts, apologetics can be used to point to the uniqueness of the Scriptures. By

doing so, the messages (the gospel and the defense) are placed in the proper


APOLOGETICS IS NOT SCIENTISM:Scientism is the belief that ultimately

everything has to be explained with the help of science. This is a false belief.

Modern science has been developed only for studying matter an energy. Thus

nothing beyond matter or energy can be studied with the help of modern physical

science. Thus the apologist recognizes that his aim is not to explain everything with

the help of science. Rather, he uses science where it is a scientific subject, history

where it is a historical subject, logic where it is a logical subject, and so on. He also

recognizes that in some places none of these subjects apply, but that the subject

can be understood only with faith. In such places he emphasizes faith.
Practical Value Of Studying Apologetics

Christian Apologetics as a distinct discipline of study and communication is at least

two thousand years old now. Practical observation in these two millennia coupled

with what the scriptures say have led to the recognition of many practical values of

studying apologetics.

CONSERVATION OF OWN FAITH:It is possible for a person to be a good believer

in Christ but still remain ill-informed about problems in the real world. Many of

these problems and movements attempt to question his faith, and therefore if he

suddenly meets them one fine day, there is a high possibility of shock, surprise, and

even withdrawal.

On the other hand, if a person has at least some idea about the challenges coming

from all kinds of errant movements, then he will be better able to face them when

such an occasion comes. Spiritual life is a warfare, and a person who has studied

the enemy's tactics and terrains is better prepared for war than one who is


Withdrawal from physical strain makes our bodies weak, while exercise and hard

work makes our bodies strong. The same way, successfully facing the attacks

against the Bible helps one's own faith to become stronger in the longer run.

BETTER ABILITY TO COMBAT:The way in which the Christian faith has been

attacked has changed from generation to generation. Some arguments come back

to force in every generation while some are affective only in a certain period of

history. At the same time, answers to these questions have been becoming more

exact, refined, and powerful. No person can now know the major lines of attack or

the appropriate answers without studying apologetics.

A formal and systematic study of apologetics gives not only sufficient background,

but also makes the person discerning as to which line of reasoning and answering is

likely to have the greatest impact on the listeners.


is bound to raise up some new objections. A person who lacks preparation or

background might suddenly find himself at a loss of words, but a trained person

might be able to hold the ground even if the attack comes in an completely

unexpected manner.

Actually, all accusations fall into certain broad categories. a person who has a

systematic introduction to apologetics will be able to see the question and

immediately understand the category to which it belongs. He will therefore be able

to hold his ground without a sudden loss of words.

AID IN WITNESSING: In turn all of the above activities aid one's ability to

witness powerfully for Christ. The resistance to the gospel from the rationalists has

become very strong. (These days rationalists are found not only outside the Church

but also within it). They exert considerable influence upon young minds.

Thus the young people come to the gospel with many doubts that block them from

taking a leap of faith. However, a person having some background in apologetics

can help this young person when he puts forward his sincere doubts.
Non-interest In Christian Apologetics

Among Christians there are some who do not take any interest and who do not give

any encouragement to Christians interested in Apologetics. They do so not due to

any fault of apologetics, but mainly due to their own misconceptions, and

misunderstandings. Such people can be divided into six categories:

1-People who never had any doubts in these subjects.

2-People who never had to face questions and attacks from scornful people.

3-People who have indeed faced personal doubts and external attacks, but who

have been running away from facing the challenge.

4-People who believe that the Bible does contain errors.

5-People who have lost sensitivity towards the pains and problems of others.

6-Pseudo Apologists who love prestige, but who have never mastered the subject.

THOSE WHO NEVER HAD DOUBTS:Of these five, people who have never faced

any problems are fortunate, but they should not assume that others will have a

similar experience. Nor should they assume that others are having doubts because

they lack spiritual commitment. A healthy person should never feel proud against a

sick one. The right Christian response would be sensitivity and sympathy.

THOSE WHO NEVER HAD TO FACE ATTACKS: People who never faced any

attacks against their faith from friends, coworkers or the popular literature have no

justification to assume that others are equally safe or insulated. In fact the majority

of people among our young educated people face some sort or other of attack from

their peers or contemporaries. Thus people need to be sensitive to their doubts,

rather than ignoring their need for apologetics.

PEOPLE WHO FLEE (Escapists):People who have faced doubts and external

attacks, but who are running away from it all are doing great harm to themselves

and also to others. Doubts and fears never decrease by avoiding them. These have

to be faced objectively and courageously. Those who run away never develop a

balanced or whole spiritual life. The fear they are trying to hide will gradually eat up

their mental peace.

PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE IN ERROR-PRONE BIBLE: Some people believe that the

Bible contains errors. They prefer diluting the historical and scientific accuracy of

the Bible. They want the best of both the worlds (which in itself might be a

legitimate desire), and feel that the Bible should be diluted to achieve this goal

(which is a wrong assessment). Consequently many of them become quite hostile

when they spot anyone defending the Bible.

People who believe that the Bible contains errors become panicky when someone

defends the Bible. Unfortunately, and unknown to many of us, there are plenty of

these people within the Christian world. They get annoyed when someone starts

talking of a literal creation, historicity of the Bible, or anything that seems to imply

that the scriptures are beyond error. They are spiritual compromisers, and they will

surely attack anyone who takes a non compromising attitude.

PEOPLE INSENSITIVE TO OTHERS:Some people become spiritually so

insensitive to other believers that even the slightest mention by others of their

spiritual problem or doubts provokes great anger, hostility and contempt from

them. Since apologetics starts with the assumption that people can have problems

and difficulties in believing the Bible, any mention of this subject acts as a great

provocation to insensitive people.

People who have become insensitive towards the needs and pains of others are

never able to appreciate the problems faced by others. Most of such people live in

an artificial world of their own selfish creation, where they never have to be

sensitive to the needs of others. Thus they become more and more hardened

towards others who face real-world problems and dilemmas.

PSEUDO APOLOGISTS: The Christian world has many pseudo-apologists. Usually

these people have some qualification in the sciences or humanities, but very little

training in apologetics. When faced with troubling questions, they use their own

human knowledge to build up a private system of apologetics. Not having a

background in theology or apologetics, and not having come in contact with

Christian apologists, their private system of apologetics might be quite deficient or

even outright faulty. Yet due to non-contact with real bible-based apologetics, they

continue to live happily with their own brand of apologetics in their world of


Many of them recognize this deficiency as soon as they hear the presentation of a

trained apologist. Thus they feel quite threatened when they listen to apologists.

Instead of broadening their grasp of the subject by mutual interaction, they take

recourse to attacking other apologists.

Of the six categories of people mentioned above, none has a valid biblical objection

against the discipline of Christian Apologetics. Their objections and oppositions stem

from their personal prejudices and ignorances. Consequently, the apologist should

never worry about the opposition they put up. Rather, he should always expect

some antagonism from them and try to use these to examine and refine further his

presentation of the subject.

People who believe that the Bible contains errors, who are insensitive to others, and

who would not like anything except their own private system of apologetics find

their world collapsing when they see Christian Apologists in action. This is not a

problem of theological origin. Rather, it is a personal problem that has no easy

solution. Further, these people are not truth-seekers or sincere inquirers. Their aim

is to impose their erroneous views upon others, and therefore their conversation is

not marked for humility or the spirit of free, objective inquiry. Rather, their aim is

to impose their erroneous views upon others. Thus it is a waste of time arguing or

discussing with them.

The first three category of people above might readily listen to a good apologist if

he is willing to explain the whole situation to them -- that a lot of genuine seekers

are indeed struggling due to these questions, and also that they should not run

away from their own doubts. However, the last two categories (the compromisers

and the spiritually insensitive people) may not listen all that easily. One should be

quite discerning when talking with them lest one end up wasting time and losing


The Lord Jesus Himself provides a good example that proof seekers are not to be

shunned. When doubting Thomas demanded proof of resurrection, the Lord did not

refuse his request. Rather, at the appropriate occasion he Himself personally, and

with all compassion, invited Thomas to attempt his empirical verification.

The Lord did say that "blessed are they that have not seen, and yet believe", but

surely this was not a rebuke for doubt but only a comparison of insights that

different people had about Lord Jesus. This becomes very clear in the light of what

the Lord Jesus did to other disciples even without their asking.

Most Bible readers overlook the fact that the Lord Himself was the first to offer

empirical evidence to ALL the disciples, even without the disciples asking for it. The

gospel says, "Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself : handle me, and

see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have" (Luke 24:39).

Doubt about spirituals is common even among dedicated Christians. If such people

are sincere, one should surely help them by emulating what the Lord did with

Thomas and the rest of the disciples.
Opposition to Apologetics

There are some Christians who are opposed to the very idea of apologetics. They do

this because of a number of reasons, some of which are as follows:

DISTRUST OF REASON: Some people oppose apologetics because they are

completely distrustful of human reason in spiritual realm. According to them, faith

and reason are to be placed in totally separate compartments, having no role to

play in each other's realm. For them, reason is for the natural world while faith is

something for the spiritual world. However, such a view that compartmentalizes

truth lacks coherence. The Christian approach to truth is an integrated one where

one has to accept that faith and reason do mix with each other in many realms of

spiritual truth.

FEAR: Some people oppose apologetics because they find them selves ill equipped

to face the attacks. So instead of facing the problems, and instead of making a

defense for the faith that is in them, they prefer to run away from it all. Since

apologetics is a very difficult subject to study and master, running away from the

reality is easier for them than facing it. However, cowardice is NOT the way of

Christian thought or practice.

Faith is the starting-point of Christianity, and once faith is established Christianity

can be shown to be consistent with truth and reason. There are may who will be

strengthened in their faith if this consistency is shown to them, and it is the task of

the apologist to help every genuine inquirer.

WILLFUL BLIND OPPOSITION: Many people oppose Christian Apologetics due to

their ignorance. Such people can be engaged in mutual conversation and a

reasonable explanation will convince them that their opposition is ill founded.

However, some people oppose Christian Apologetics and Biblical Creationism

willfully and due to their stubbornness. It is usually futile to waste time upon


All serious apologists should expect some hostility. They should not waste their time

either in worrying about the attack or in trying to counter the hostile parties. They

should realize that a person willfully opposing apologetics is not a sincere inquirer.

Further, there is no medicine to cure willful opposition.

In summary, every apologist should expect intense hostility from some people, but

they should steer clear of them for the sake of their own effectiveness.
Public Debates With Hostile People

The purpose of Christian Apologetics is not winning debates, but establishing the

truth. Our generation is known for lack of time for listening to prolonged debates,

abounding with superficial people, and high on loaded words. In such milieu

debating is NOT a good strategy for discussing spiritual truth. Thus the apologist

should avoid debating in public, except in front of a mature crowd made up of a

small number of seekers dominated by a true spirit of inquiry. Further, the other

side of the debate should be presented by one or more persons who are not given

to loaded words or to ridicule. People who are given to scorn can manipulate the

audience in such ways that they can turn the public against the apologist even

though they have nothing of substance against him.

Also, even when the apologist delivers straight lectures in a non debating fashion,

some of these people (from the audience) will try their best to engage him in

face-to face (speaker-to-audience) debates. Usually this will be a trap meant to

discredit the apologist by subtle mockery. Apologists should develop practical

strategies to foil their deceptive plans.

An apologist should never forget that a willful debater can very easily disturb his

public presentation by resorting to mockery, sarcasm and other disturbing or

distracting tactics. They should never be allowed to take control. The apologist

should keep presenting his subject without allowing anyone with the spirit of

mockery to dominate. Anything and everything they say destroys the serious mood

of the audience, and once that is done the impact of even the best apologetic

presentation can reduce to nothing.
Apologetics Through Compromise

Though the very essence of Christian Apologetics is non-compromise, some people

do not seem to understand this. When this type of people see a conflict between

two systems of thought, their response is that everyone should somehow to find a

middle position. Unfortunately, this kind of a compromise is a slow poison that does

more harm to truth than the fiercest attack directed against the Christian faith.

Two apparently conflicting reports can be reconciled with each other if they

represent two different aspects of one and the same truth. For example, when the

four blind men give four different reports about the elephant, their conflicting

reports can be reconciled into a single picture. Or, when different people report

different colours for the same chameleon, these accounts can be unified into one.

This is made possible in every such case because the conflicting reports present

DIFFERENT aspects related to one and the same entity. On the other hand, if

conflicting reports come due to fundamental differences in the basic system itself,

they cannot be reconciled.

For example, the demands of evolution and creation cannot be reconciled with each

other because they represent two fundamentally different, mutually hostile, and

mutually exclusive systems. They do not represent various aspects of the same

truth, but rather two mutually opposing systems. They differ and diverge from each

other right from the presuppositional level so that any attempt at reconciling them

is a vain exercise. What's needed in such cases is to scrape the inferior set of

presuppositions, so that the remaining better set of presuppositions provides the

more authentic picture of reality.

Further, whenever two opposing systems are synthesized into one, it is the truth

that always suffers. When fresh food is mixed with decaying one, it is always the

fresh one that suffers not the other way round. This is because all compromise

hurts and eclipses the truth. The best example is the attempted reconciliation

between evolution and creation.

To unify the radically differing principles of evolution and creation some

compromise has to be made. Since evolution-believers would not give an inch of

their territory, all burden for compromise falls on the side of creation. Consequently

we find that all synthesis of evolution-creation begins with the direct or indirect

denial of the Genesis creation account.

The synthesis between evolution and creation is usually designated by the name

"Theistic Evolution". There are many shades of theistic evolution, but all of them

agree that God used evolution as the method of creating the universe. When such a

thesis is advocated, a question arises about the Genesis account of creation: If God

created all, including man, using evolution then what about the story of Adam, Eve,

the garden of Eden, the tree of knowledge and the serpent. All theistic evolutionists

assure their readers that all this is only "poetic language" and that these are not to

be taken literally. Thus by a stroke of pen the theistic evolutionist abandons the

reliability of the Genesis account. With that goes the foundation on which the entire

Christian doctrine stands.

Whenever two contradictory systems of thought are reconciled with each other, the

truth always suffers. Opposites can be synthesized only at the cost of truth, and

that is an alarming possibility for any apologist.

In this book we take an unashamed stand in favour of truth, total truth, and truth

alone. There will be no attempt to mingle error with truth. Tens of thousands of

Protestant Reformers sacrifice their lives to defend the truth expressed in the

following statements:

Sola Scriptura (Bible Alone)

Sola Gratia (Grace Alone)

Sola Fide (Faith Alone)

Solus Christus (Christ Alone)

Soli Deo Gloria (To God Alone Be Glory)

We unashamedly stand with the Fathers of the Reformation. The above statements

form the presuppositions upon which this book rests. Since presuppositions play a

very important part in apologetics, polemics, hermeneutics, and theology, we would

devote another document to a discussion of presuppositions of various groups of

Christians as well as non Christians.