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Introducing the Creation Stage (Genesis 1-11)  (Scroll down for the Q & A)

The following information is taken from WILLMINGTON’S GUIDE TO THE BIBLE by Dr. H. L. Willmington TYNDALE HOUSE PUBLISHERS, INC. Wheaton, Illinois. They are his answers alone and while we like some of them, we do not necessarily agree with others. These are placed here for research purposes and edification only.

These eleven chapters are absolutely vital in rightly understanding the remaining 1178 in the Bible. If one accepts them at face value, he will have no difficulty concerning the rest of the Old and New Testament. The three important men of this stage are Adam, Enoch, and Noah. The four important events are, the Creation, the Fall, the Flood, and the Tower of Babel.

The Creation account includes everything, from electrons to galaxies, from dinosaurs to dandelions, and from Adam to angels! This stage is the only one which describes God as resting (Gen. 2:2, 3). It gives us the first human to be created (Adam) and the first human to be born (Cain) (Gen. 1:26; 4:1). It records the first man to die (Abel) and the first not to die (Enoch) (Gen. 4:8; 5:24). We are introduced to a serpent, a raven, and a dove (Gen. 3:1; 7:1, 8).

The glory of God in creation (Gen. 1:1) and the grace of God in salvation (Gen. 6:8) are both clearly seen. We see the world’s earliest civilization (Cainite) and the world’s oldest citizen (Methuselah) (Gen. 4:17; 5:27). This stage describes the first marriage, the first murder, and the first promise of the Messiah (Gen. 2:23-25; 4:8; 3:15). It gives us the first illustration of human religion (the fig leaves), and the first example of divine redemption (the coats of skin) (Gen. 3:7, 21). In its pages sinners are drowned, and a saint is drunken (Gen. 7:21; 9:20, 21). A ship settles on a mountain and a tower rises on a plain (Gen. 8:4; 11:1-4).

An Overall View of Genesis 1-11

I. The Creation of All Things

(Gen. 1-2) A.    First day B.    Second day C.    Third day D.    Fourth day E.    Fifth day F.    Sixth day G.    Seventh day

II. The Corruption of All Things

(Gen. 3-5) A.    The subtlety of Satan (3) B.    The sin of Adam (3) C.    The redemption of God (3) D.    The story of Cain and Abel (4) E.    The ministry of Enoch (5)

III. The Condemnation of All Things

(Gen. 6-9) A.    The conditions prior to the flood (6) B.    The salvation through the flood (7-8) C.    The tragedy following the flood (9)

IV. The Confusion of All Things

 (Gen. 10-11) A.    The arrogance of man B.    The judgment of God C.    The origin of nations

Questions and Answers About Genesis 1-11

1.    How vast is our universe?

It is so vast that it takes a beam of light (which travels some 700 million miles per hour) over 100,000 years just to cover the distance length of our galaxy called the Milky Way. But our galaxy is only one among many billions in the known universe. To illustrate the size of our universe, consider the following four examples:

a.    paper stack model

(1)    Let us say the thickness of a sheet of paper represents the distance from the earth to the sun (some ninety-three million miles).

(2)    To represent the distance to the nearest star we would need a seventy-one-foot high stack of paper.

(3)    To cover the diameter of our Milky Way galaxy would require a 310-mile high stack.

(4)    To reach the edge of the known universe would demand a pile of paper sheets thirty-one million miles high.

 b.    orange and grain of sand model

(1)    Here an orange would represent the sun.

(2)    A grain of sand is the earth, circling the orange at a distance of thirty feet.

(3)    Pluto (most remote planet in our solar system) is another grain of sand, circling the orange at ten city blocks away.

(4)    Alpha Centauri (the nearest star) is 1300 miles away from the orange.

c.    hollow sun illustration

(1)    If the sun were hollow, one million, three hundred thousand earths could fit inside.

 (2)    A star named Antares (if hollow) could hold sixty-four million of our suns.

(3)    In the constellation of Hercules there is a star which could contain 100 million of Antares.

(4)    The largest known star, Epsilon, could easily swallow up several million stars the size of the one in Hercules!

d. the relative speed illustration

 (1)    Our earth is traveling around its own axis at 1000 m.p.h.

 (2)    It moves around the sun at 67,000 m.p.h.

(3)    It is carried by the sun across our galaxy at a speed of 64,000 m.p.h.

(4)    It moves in orbit around our galaxy at 481,000 m.p.h.

(5)    It travels through space at one million, three hundred and fifty thousand m.p.h.

(6)    Every twenty-four hours we cover 57,360,000 miles.

(7)    Each year we travel 20,936,400,000 miles across empty space.

All the above is, of course, but a feeble attempt to illustrate the magnitude of space and of a universe which contains as many stars as there are grains of sand on all the seashores of the world. Furthermore, in Psalm 147:4 (also Isa. 40:26), we are told that God has both numbered and named each star. “He telleth the number of the stars; he calleth them all by their names” (Ps. 147:4). “Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number: he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might, for that he is strong in power; not one faileth” (Isa. 40:26). But more glorious than all this is the statement that this same omnipotent and omniscient God “healeth the broken in heart and bindeth up their wounds” (Ps. 147:3). “Great is our Lord, and of great power: his understanding is infinite” (Ps. 147:5).

2.    How minute is our universe?

Simply stated, it is as unbelievably small as it is big. Consider the following:

a.    All material in the universe consists of atoms. Atoms in turn are made up of three “building blocks,” which are protons and neutrons (which two go to make up the center of an atom called the nucleus), and electrons (which circle the nucleus as our earth does the sun).

b.    On the tip of a ball point pen are so many atoms that if they were carried by an army, marching four abreast, an atom to a man, it would take over 20,000 years for a march-past.

 c.    It would take 25 trillion protons laid side by side to span a linear inch.

d.    There are as many protons in a cubic inch of copper as there are drops of water in the oceans of the world, or grains of sand on the seashores of our earth.

e.    The size of an electron is to a dust speck as the dust speck is to the entire earth.

f.    The space between an electron and the nucleus is 10,000 times as great as the size of that nucleus. For example, if the outer shell of electrons in an atom were the size of the Houston Astrodome, the nucleus would be the size of a Ping-Pong ball in the center of that stadium.

Question: If most of the atom is empty space, why does a table top offer so much resistance when you push at it with your finger?

Answer: The surface of the table (like the tip of one’s finger) consists of a wall of electrons, belonging to the outermost layer of atoms in both objects. Both the speed and force attraction of these electrons thus prohibit your finger from going through the table as a fast-moving bicycle wheel would prevent you from placing your finger through the spokes.

3.    How much energy exists within our universe?

a.    The protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom are held together with a density of one billion tons per cubic inch. This is around forty pounds of energy between each proton.

b.    This energy force is one followed by thirty eight zeros times stronger than regular gravitational forces. How big is this number? It is over 100 trillion times larger than the number of all the grains of sand on earth’s seashores.

c.    German physicist Otto Gail has calculated that a single drop of gasoline, if totally utilized in an automobile, would be sufficient for 400 journeys around the world (a trip involving ten million miles).

d.    Albert Einstein estimated the total amount of energy released from one ounce of water could easily lift 200 million tons of steel one mile above the earth.

e.    The various stars and galaxies were created by the conversion of energy into mass. It has been determined that the amount of energy used in the creation of only one gram of matter (1/450th of a pound) is equal to 2.5 times the amount of energy generated by Niagara Falls in one entire day. This would be ten million kilowatts.

5.    How complex is our universe?

 Here we refer to life itself. The wonders of the atom and the glory of the galaxies are but drab tinker toys when compared to the miracle of living organisms.

 a.    The smallest insect on this earth is made up of millions of living cells. There are some seventy-five trillion such cells in the body of an average man. But each individual cell is unbelievably complex. It has been demonstrated that the simplest living cell is vastly more complicated than the most sophisticated giant computer on earth.

b.    Each cell is a world brimming with as many as 200 trillion tiny groups of atoms called protein molecules. It is a micro-universe in itself.

c.    The largest molecule is called the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The DNA strand carries the hereditary information from the parent to the offspring in all living things. It contains the genetic code and determines whether you will turn out to be a man, mushroom, dandelion, or dinosaur.

d.    The total length of the DNA strand in one cell is six feet. If all the DNA strands in the body were bunched up they could fit into a box the size of an ice cube. But if unwound and joined together, the string could stretch from the earth to the sun and back more than 400 times.

e.    Each of the seventy-five trillion cells in a man’s body contains the information found in all other cells. Thus, a cell in a man’s little toe has all the data in its DNA for making another man physically identical to himself.

 f.    If the coded DNA instructions of a single human cell were put into English, they would fill a 1000-volume encyclopedia.

 g.    During cell division, two strands of DNA (called the double helix), which have been interwoven around each other in ladder-like fashion, separate to form a new cell. It is believed that the rotation during this unwinding occurs at the rate of more than seventy-five turns a second. This would be somewhat like attempting in a split second to uncoil and separate a huge cathedral packed from top to bottom with twisted and intertwined microphone cord. After the double helix is separated it then duplicates itself into a new cell. This duplication is so accurate that it would correspond to a rate of error of less than one letter in an entire set of the Encyclopedia Britannica.

 h.    A human cell in a laboratory, free from bodily influence, may divide some fifty times before dying. If all of our cells divided that often, we would eventually reach a weight of more than eighty trillion tons.

6.    When was the universe created?

Some scientists would confidently tell us its origin occurred via a big bang from five to fifty billion years ago. How are these dates arrived at? One time calendar is called radiometric dating—the dating of rocks. In certain rocks the element uranium 238 decays into lead 206 with a half-life of 4.5 billion years (that is, the decay involves 50 of the original uranium each 4.5 billion years). It is claimed, therefore, that the age of a rock may be determined through this method. However, there are serious problems at times with radiometric dating.

For example, radiometric dating has shown certain rocks from volcanoes in Russia to be five billion years old, whereas it is known they were formed within the last 200 years. In opposition to the above radical ancient dates, a number of creation scientists now feel there is mounting evidence that our earth may be much younger than supposed, perhaps less than 12,000 years old. These indications are as follows:

a.    Population statistics. If man appeared over one million years ago, the present world population would be thousands of times greater than it actually is. In fact, our entire galaxy could not provide the needed space for so many. The present world population is around 4.3 billion. Assuming the average life span to be seventy years and the average generation length to be thirty-five years, then starting with one family, the present world population would result in about thirty doublings.

These doublings would carry us back in history from today to around 3500 b.c. This date is suggested by several creationist scientists to mark the time of the Flood. Thus, the creation model dovetails beautifully with known world population statistics. But what of the evolutionary model? Morris writes: “Now, if the first man appeared one million years ago, and these very conservative growth rates applied during that period, the world population would be at present 10 (27000 zeros following) people. However, no more than 10 (with 100 zeros) people could be crammed into the known universe!” (Scientific Creationism, p. 154)

b.    The amount of helium-4 in the atmosphere. This suggests that our atmosphere is less than 15,000 years old.

c.    The absence of meteorite dust. Some fifteen million tons of nickel meteorite dust settle to earth each year. If the earth has indeed existed for five billion years, then there should now be a layer of this dust at least 200 feet thick all over the planet. Of course, no such layer is found.

d.    The decay of earth’s magnetic field. This field, it has been shown, has a half-life of 1400 years. This means it is weakened by 50 percent each fourteen centuries. It also means the magnetic field was twice as strong 1400 years ago as it is now, four times as strong 2800 years ago, and so on. Only 7000 years ago it must have been thirty-two times as strong. It is very doubtful that it could have been much stronger than this.

 e.    The imbalance of carbon-14 and carbon-12. It can be shown that it would take a period of 30,000 years to attain an equilibrium between these two. However, at present C-14 still exceeds C-12 by some 50 percent. The above are but five of over eighty facts which would indicate a recent creation date.

f.    Another time calendar is known as the radiocarbon method. This method, unlike the first three, is used only in determining the age of organic fossils. Radioactive carbon is formed in the earth’s upper atmosphere resulting from the incoming cosmic radiation and atmospheric nitrogen-14. It then unites with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and is absorbed by all plants and animals. At the moment of death, plants and animals cease to absorb C-14. It then begins to decay back into nitrogen 14. This has a half-life of 5730 years. Five “half-lives” of C-14 would equal 29,000 years, and would leave only 1/32 of the original C-14 content.

Therefore, the C-14 method becomes increasingly weak past a few thousand years. As with the other dating methods, C-14 has its problems. Many living systems are not in equilibrium for the C-14 exchange. It has been found that the shells of living mollusks may show radiocarbon ages up to 2300 years. The amount of natural carbon may have varied in the past. It is known that the earth once had far more vegetation than today.

 This is indicated by the vast amounts of coal deposits now known all over the world. Consequently, organisms living at that time would be subjected to only a very small C-14/C-12 ratio, and their remains now would contain no radio carbon at all, even if they had lived 6000 years ago. On the other hand, during the ice age there would have been much less C-12 than during the vegetation age.

However, one must exercise care in attempting to pinpoint exactly a recent creation date. For example, the Irish seventeenth century theologian Archbishop James Ussher and his contemporary Dr. John Lightfoot stated that creation week occurred on October 18-24 in the year 4004 b.c., and that the creation of Adam took place on Friday of that week, October 23, 4004 b.c., at 9:00 a.m., forty-fifth meridian time!

7.    How did life come into being?

The real question today is not the survival of the species, but rather the arrival of it. Three theories have been advocated to explain the problem of origin.

 a.    Atheistic materialism.

This interesting theory boldly assures us that everything once came from nothing. In other words, if one gives enough mud enough time, it will, all by itself, produce the music of a Beethoven, the paintings of a Raphael, the writings of a Shakespeare, and the teachings of a Christ.

Question: How long would it take one million monkeys typing away day and night on one million typewriters for just one monkey to accidentally type out the first ten words in the Bible? (“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”)

Answer: Consider a rock which reached from the earth to the nearest star (some twenty-six trillion miles away). Once every million years a tiny bird flies to this massive rock and removes the smallest grain of sand from it. When four rocks this size have been completely carried away, then one of those monkeys will have accidentally typed out Genesis 1:1. But this accomplishment would be absolutely nothing as compared to the probabilities that a living cell would by random processes be formed.

Consider the following: Dr. Harold Morowitz of Yale estimated the theoretical limits for the smallest free-living thing which could duplicate itself. It would require 239 individual protein molecules. What are the chances that the first protein molecule would form all their amino acids into left-handed chains? (For some unknown reason all life consists only of these left-handed protein molecule chains). Well, the minimal number of amino acids in a protein is 410. This then would be like flipping a coin 410 times and coming up with heads every time! The answer is one chance in 10123 (the figure 1 followed by 123 zeros). But then even if this occurred in one protein, it would have to be repeated in at least 238 other proteins also.

The chances are now one in 1029345 (one followed by 29,345 zeros). This would be about twenty 8½ x 11 pages of typed zeros! How big is this number? Consider the following: There are 1018 seconds in 15 billion years. The known universe weighs 7 x 1041 pounds. The universe contains 5 x 1078 atoms. The universe contains 10130 electrons. Conclusions: Suppose each atom could expand until it was the size of the present universe. There would then be 3 x 10157 atoms in the universe. By comparison, the odds against a single protein forming by chance in earth’s entire history is 4000 times larger than the number of atoms in this super-universe. Imagine an amoeba traveling a line stretched across our known universal some fifteen billion light years in length. Its speed is one inch per year.

It has one task, to carry one atom across and come back for another. Each trip takes 2 x 128 years. The time it would take to carry all the atoms across the entire diameter of the known universe is the expected time it would take for one protein to form by chance. Suppose the amoeba has only traveled one inch since the universe has existed (fifteen billion years to cover one inch). He could still carry 6 x 1053 universes while one protein is forming. From time to time sensational claims are made concerning attempts to create life in a laboratory.

But has this actually been done? Stanley Miller (University of California) showed that certain amino acids (which are basic components of proteins) could be generated by discharging electricity through a mixture of methane, water vapor, and ammonia. Sidney Fox (Florida State University) heated a dry mixture of amino acids at 175° C for six hours and showed that under certain artificial conditions a number of amino adds could be randomly linked together. He called them “coacervates” and thought them to be similar to protein molecules.

Arthur Kornberg (Stanford) was able to make DNA replicate itself after extracting it from a living cell and placing it in a bath of the four nucleotides which constitute DNA, provided the proper enzymes and other constituents were also present. He also showed that virus DNA could be made to reproduce outside a host cell, contrary to usual virus behavior, provided the proper enzymes were present. A virus, however, is not a living cell. H. G. Khorana (University of Wisconsin) was successful in the synthesis of a gene. He started with a certain simple DNA structure, considered to be a particular gene, and with the presence of enzymes again, was able to copy this gene.

In 1970 J. P. Danielli (Buffalo University) claimed to have accomplished the first artificial synthesis of a living and reproducing cell. However, he had started with living amoebas in the first place, then partially dismantling and finally reassembling them, using components from different amoebas. However, if life is to be defined as a self-contained, self-sufficient, and self-reproducing unit, such as in a cell, then we see the experiments above have yet to take the first tiny step in the journey of a billion light years in the creation of life. Thus, the theory of atheistic materialism is not only interesting, but idiotic and impossible also.

 b.    Theistic evolution. This theory may be thought of as the Mosaic-Darwinian theory, for it earnestly attempts to unify two seemingly irreconcilable philosophies. It is known as the molecule-to-man theory. Theistic evolution says we must look to Darwin for the when and how of creation, and then learn from Moses concerning the who and why of all things.

There are, however, two serious flaws in this theory. One is a scientific problem. Evolution runs contrary to the Second Law of Thermodynamics which describes this universe as a wound-up dock which is slowly running down. Instead, evolution has all life being built up from the simple to the complex. The second problem confronting evolution is a scriptural one. For example, Moses informs us that life began on dry land during the third day of creation (Gen. 1:9-13), while evolution says it originated in some slimy sea. Furthermore, evolution is in direct contradiction to the creation of Eve. Finally, evolution would reduce Adam to a spiritually transformed ape, but the Scripture says he was originally and suddenly made in the very image of God. In an attempt to get around this, it is claimed by some that our world in this area is not governed by the Second Law, for it receives the necessary energy from the sun to account for evolution. But the complexity of life calls for more than a source of energy. It also demands a purposeful direction of that energy.

As an example, a builder might expose bricks, sand, nail, paint, wires, wood, and other building materials to the heat and energy of the sun and to the refreshing gentle rains, but these objects would never by themselves unite and form a house! In the light of all this many have concluded with Dr. Henry Morris that evolution is clearly, strongly, and completely refuted by the Bible. Morris observes: “Genesis teaches that life began on dry land (Gen. 1:11, 12) while evolution says it began in some remote sea bottom. Genesis declares birds existed before insects while evolution reverses this order (Gen. 1:20, 24).

Genesis states that birds and fishes were created at the same time (Gen. 1:21) but evolution says fishes evolved hundreds of millions of years before birds developed. Genesis stresses ten times that the entities created were to reproduce “after their kinds,” while evolution postulates the slow ascent of all organisms from a common ancestor. Genesis says that Adam was made from the dust of the ground into the image of God, while evolution claims Adam descended from a sub-ape creature. Genesis records woman coming from man’s side, while evolution teaches both man and woman developed simultaneously. Genesis tells us that man was originally a vegetarian (Gen. 1:29) while evolution teaches he was probably a head-hunting cannibal!”

c.    Special creation.

This simply affirms that God said just what he meant and meant just what he said in the first two chapters of the Bible, as he did in the remaining 1187 chapters.

9.    Why was the earth made on the first day but the sun, moon, and stars not until the fourth day of creation?

We have already briefly touched upon this. a.    To emphasize the importance of this earth. God would soon (during the sixth day) place a creature created in his own image upon the earth. Years later his only Son would be born upon this planet and die upon it.

Furthermore, upon this earth the King of kings will someday once again return. b.    To discourage the worship of the sun. All ancient civilizations worshiped the sun. It gave them light and warmth. But God wanted his people to know that light and life come from him—that the earth existed before the sun, and that he created both.

Dr. John Witcomb writes: “But if the sun, moon, and stars are not ultimately essential to the earth’s existence, then why did God create them? Three basic reasons are listed in Genesis 1:14. They are for lights, for seasons (a calendar), and for signs. As lights, they replaced the special and temporary light of the early days.

As a calendar, dividing seasons, days, and years, they enable men to plan their work accurately into the distant future, thus reflecting the purposive mind of God. As signs, they teach and ever remind men of vastly important spiritual truths concerning the Creator. David learned from the heavens the transcendence of God and his own comparative nothingness. ‘When I consider the heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars which thou hast ordained, what is man that thou art mindful of him?’ (Ps. 8:3). The Apostle Paul insisted that men are utterly without excuse for their idolatry.” (The Early Earth, pp. 58, 59)

10.    Are the days of Genesis 1 really literal twenty-four-hour days?

There is strong scholarly and scriptural evidence that the days are indeed literal.

a.    The use of a numerical adjective with the word “day” in Genesis 1 would limit it to a normal day.

b.    The natural reading of the Genesis account would suggest it.

c.    Moses believed it. See Exodus 20:11; 31:17.

d.    Edward Young (outstanding Hebrew scholar) believed it.

e.    Benjamin Warfield (one of the great Orthodox theologians of all time) believed it.

f.    Departmental professors of Oriental language in nine leading universities were once asked the following question by a research scholar: “Do you consider that the Hebrew word Yom (day) as used in Genesis 1 accompanied by a numeral should properly be translated as (a) a day, as commonly understood, (b) an age, or (c) either a day or an age without preference?” The nine universities polled were: Oxford, Cambridge, London, Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Toronto, McGill, and Manitoba. Of these, seven universities responded that it should be translated as a day as commonly understood.

 g.    As indicated by the genealogies found in Genesis 5 and 11. If evolution is correct and man is really a million years old, then we would be forced to allow a fifty-thousand-year gap between each name in these two chapters. Furthermore, if life itself is nearly five billion years old, then each day in Genesis 1 would have to stand for approximately seven hundred million years!

17.    How long were Adam and Eve in the Garden?

In Genesis 4:1 we are told that Adam “knew his wife.” This is a reference to sexual union. Inasmuch as this is the first time it is mentioned, it would appear they spent a very short time in Eden, perhaps only a few hours or days.

19.    Where did Cain get his wife?

Perhaps no other question concerning the Bible has been asked more than this one. To say the least, it is absolutely insignificant as compared to the one asked by a Philippian jailor, “What must I do to be saved?” (Acts 16:30). According to Genesis 5:4, Adam and Eve had sons and daughters. Thus, Cain doubtless married one of his sisters. This verse also explains what Cain was afraid of after he had murdered his brother in Genesis 4:14. He no doubt assumed his parents would bear other sons and daughters and that one of them might someday come looking for him.

20.    Do the genealogies in Genesis 5 and 10 contain any gaps?

a.    The names in Genesis 5 are repeated in exact order in 1 Chronicles 1:1-4 and Luke 3:36-38, so it might seem there are none. However, if this is true, then one must conclude the following: (1)    That Creation took place around 4000 b.c. (2)    That the Flood occurred around 2400 b.c. (1656 years after Creation). (3)    That Adam was a contemporary with Enoch for 308 years and died fifty-seven years before his translation. (4)    That Seth (Adam’s son) lived to see Enoch’s translation and died just fourteen years before the birth of Noah. (5)    That Noah was a contemporary with Abraham for fifty-eight years. (6)    That Shem (Noah’s son) actually outlived Abraham by thirty-five years. However, few conservative Bible scholars would concur with all these conclusions.

b.    In Genesis 10 there is at least one gap. Note: (1)    Genesis 10:24 tells us that Arpachs begat Shelah who begat Eber. (2)    Luke 3:34, 36 informs us that Arpachs begat Cainan who begat Shelah, who begat Eber.

c.    In Matthew chapter one three names are left out. (1)    Matthew 1:8, 9 tells us that Asa begat Jehoshaphat, who begat Jehokam, who begat Uzziah. (2)    In 2 Chronicles chapters 17-26 we are told that Asa begat Jehoshaphat, who begat Jehoram, who begat Ahaziah, who begat Joash, who begat Amaziah, who begat Uzziah.

21.    Who were those mysterious sons of God in Genesis 6?

Much controversy has surrounded these verses. Who were the sons of God who married the daughters of men? There are two basic approaches to this.

The simple interpretation is that the sons of God were those individuals belonging to the line of Seth while the daughters of men were the unsaved girls who belonged to the line of Cain. The second and more involved interpretation holds that the sons of God were wicked and fallen angelic beings of some kind who committed immoral and unnatural physical acts with women in general.

a.    Basic arguments for the first view.

(1)    This is the most natural way to interpret the passage.

(2)    It is supported by Jesus’ statement in Matthew 22:30: “For in the resurrection they [saved human beings in heaven] neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven.”

(3)    Because of the law of biogenesis, life begets similar life. (Note the statement “after its kind” in Gen. 1:11, 12, 21, 24, 25.)

(4)    Paul’s statement in 1 Corinthians 15:38-40, “There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial,” would indicate these two can never co-join.

(5)    Moses did not use the regular Hebrew word for angel (malak) which he later employs at least twenty-eight times in the Pentateuch.

(6)    “Mighty men” (supposed offspring of angels and women) is the Hebrew word gibbor (Gen. 6:4) which is used dozens of times in the Old Testament and always refers to human men (see Jdg. 6:12).

b.    Basic arguments for the second view:

 (1)    The Hebrew language seems to favor it. (a)    The Hebrew phrase “bne-elohim” (Sons of God) always refers to angels in the Old Testament. (See Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7; Dan. 3:25.) (b)    The Hebrew word “nephilim” (translated “giants” in 6:4) actually should be rendered “fallen ones.” The normal word for a huge man is rapha. Thus, men like Og and Goliath were described by the word rapha. (See Deut. 3:11; 1 Chron. 20:6.)

 (2)    There is almost always a basis for commonly held ancient legends, however weird and distorted they might have become. In 6:4 we read concerning the “men of renown,” which some believe is the historical basis for the legends of Hercules and other children of the gods of mythology. This later corresponds to such Babylonian figures as Gilgamesh, the supposed son of a goddess and a mortal. He was called “two-thirds god and one-third man.”

 (3)    The common opinion of Jewish scholars: Josephus, the great Jewish historian, brings this out in his writings. The Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament and the Bible used by Jews) translates Genesis 6:2 as the “angels of God.”

(4)    The interpretation of the early church: it was not until the fourth century that another view opposed to the angels of God theory was offered. Dr. James M. Gray (past President of Moody Bible Institute) writes, “There is reason to believe this view would not have changed…had it not been for certain erroneous opinions and practices of Christendom” (from his book, Spiritism and the Fallen Angels). Gray then suggests two such reasons: (a)    One of these was angel worship. The church sometime after the fourth century began worshiping angels, so the natural thing would be to deny any angel could do such vile things with humanity. (b)    The other reason was celibacy. If indeed these sons of God were human men, then the monks would have scriptural justification for indulging in sexual activities in spite of their official vows of celibacy.

 (5)    Various New Testament passages support this view. For example: 1 Peter 3:18-20—“For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but quickened by the Spirit: By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison; which sometime were disobedient, when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.” It is thought by some that these spirits here were those sons of God in Genesis 6. The reason for their iniquity was a satanic attempt to corrupt human flesh and thus prevent the promised Incarnation (Gen. 3:15) from taking place. But here Peter describes Christ as telling them their foul plan didn’t work! For another suggested passage along this line, see Jude 1:5-7.

(6)    Two kinds of fallen angels exist: the unchained and those already chained. The unchained now have access to high places and to the bodies of unsaved men. (See Eph. 6:12; Lk. 8:27; Mk. 1:23.) The chained are at present already incarcerated. (See 2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 1:5-7.) The thought is that these are chained because of their involvement in Genesis 6. In conclusion it should be noted that in recent times a third view has been advocated which says the sons of God were indeed fallen angels who totally controlled and possessed all the evil men living before the flood. These demons may have even attempted to change (by genetic engineering, as we see today) the DNA code of future babies, as would some deadly virus.

23.    How advanced was the pre-flood civilization?

One of the most popular books of the early seventies was Chariots of the Gods? by Erich Von Daniken. He attempts to prove by the following data that our earth was once visited by “little green men”:

a.    a landing strip, built many centuries ago, in Peru

b.    long, ancient concrete constructions in Bolivia

c.    drawings of space ships in Mexico

d.    glass-like bits of rocks called “tektites” in which radioactive aluminum isotopes have been discovered in Lebanon

e.    finds of cut crystal lenses, indicating electro-chemical activity

 f.    electric dry batteries found in Baghdad

g.    ornaments of smelted platinum in Peru

h.    parts of a belt made of aluminum in an ancient grave in China

While one would immediately reject Von Daniken’s unscriptural conclusions, there is nevertheless a remote possibility that the above objects are but faint evidences of a highly sophisticated (and, alas, highly sinful) pre-flood society.

24.    How much spiritual light did the pre-flood world have?

a.    They had the witness of nature. “Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse” (Rom. 1:19, 20).

b.    They had the witness of conscience. “For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another” (Rom. 2:14, 15).

c.    They had the promise of a Redeemer. “And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:15).

d.    They had the knowledge of the sacrifice. “And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering” (Gen. 4:4).

e.    They had the preaching of Enoch. “And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him” (Jude 1:14, 15).

f.    They had the preaching of Noah. “And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly” (2 Pet. 2:5).

g.    They had the ministry of the Holy Spirit. “And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years” (Gen. 6:3). But all this light produced life for only eight human beings.

25.    How did their age compare with ours?

Our Lord once said: “And as it was in the days of Noah, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all” (Lk. 17:26, 27).

Dr. Henry Morris suggests some fifteen similarities between their age and ours: a.    preoccupation with physical appetites (Lk. 17:27)

b.    rapid advances in technology (Gen. 4:22)

c.    grossly materialistic attitudes and interests (Lk. 17:28)

d.    uniformitarian philosophies (Heb. 11:7; 2 Pet. 3:3-6) “Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished” (2 Pet. 3:3-6).

e.    inordinate devotion to pleasure and comfort (Gen. 4:21) f.    no concern for God in either belief or conduct (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 1:15)

g.    disregard for the sacredness of the marriage relationship “For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark” (Mt. 24:38).

h.    rejection of the inspired Word of God “But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction” (2 Pet. 2:1).

 i.    population explosion (Gen. 6:1, 11)

j.    widespread violence “The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence” (Gen. 6:11). “And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth” (Gen. 6:13).

k.    corruption throughout society (Gen. 6:12)

 l.    preoccupation with illicit sex activity “And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah” (Gen. 4:19). “That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose” (Gen. 6:2).

m.    widespread words and thoughts of blasphemy (Jude 1:15)

 n.    organized satanic activity (Gen. 6:1-4)

o.    promulgation of systems and movements of abnormal depravity (Gen. 6:5, 12)

28.   How long did the flood last?

It is believed that 371 days elapsed from the time Noah entered the ark (Gen. 7:11) until the day he stepped out (8:18).

30.    Was the flood really worldwide?

 Both scriptural and secular evidence would strongly support that it was indeed universal. This is verified by:

a.    The need for the ark. God commanded Noah to build an ark to save both a remnant of humanity and the animal creation. But if the flood were local, then all the effort to build it would be totally unnecessary and the whole story becomes ridiculous. Noah could have just trotted down the road a few miles and escaped.

b.    The wide distribution of man before the flood. In Genesis 4:16, Cain “went out from the presence of the Lord and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.” Some believe this to be a reference to China.

c.    The comparison between the historical flood judgment and the coming fire judgment. The Apostle Peter (2 Pet. 3:3-7) states definitely that as God once destroyed the world by a flood, he will someday do likewise through a fire. As the Bible clearly teaches, the entire earth will be burned (2 Pet. 3:10; Rev. 21:2), we logically conclude that the entire earth was once flooded. Few local flood advocates would propose a “local-fire” theory. “And as it was in the days of Noe, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all. Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded; but the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all. Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed” (Lk. 17:26-30).

d.    If the flood was local, then God lied to Noah when he promised never to send a destructive flood again (Gen. 9:11). But there have been, of course, many local destructive floods since.

e.    Flood traditions can be found in the history of every ancient civilization culture. The early aborigines of nearly every country of the world have preserved records of the universal flood. Dr. Richard Andree collected forty-six flood legends from North and South America, twenty from Asia, five from Europe, seven from Africa, and ten from South Sea islands and Australia.

f.    Marine fossils have been found atop mountains. Scientists of the nineteenth century were dismayed to find that, as high as they climbed, the rocks yielded skeletons of marine animals, ocean fish, and shells of mollusks. Thus, in ancient days, flood waters streamed over Mount Everest and all other mountains. A whale’s skeleton was once found on the top of Mount Sanhorn on the Arctic Coast, and other similar skeletons a mile high on California’s coastal range.

g.    Many fossil “fish beds” exist all over the world. The Science Magazine, January 9, 1959, states: “More than a billion fish averaging 6 to 8 inches in length died on 4 square miles of bay bottom off the California Coast line.” Ivan Velikovsky writes: “When a fish dies its body floats on the surface or sinks to the bottom and is devoured rather quickly, actually in a matter of hours, by other fish. However, the fossil fish found in sedimentary rocks is very often preserved with all its bones intact. Entire shoals of fish over large areas, numbering billions of specimens, are found in a state of agony, but with no marks of a scavenger’s attack.” (Earth in Upheaval, p. 222)

 h.    Because of the worldwide animal fossil graveyards. Robert Broom, South African paleontologist, estimated 800 billion skeletons of vertebrate animals exist in the Karroo formation alone. To this can be added the tens of thousands of fossils of all kinds found in the LaBrea tar pits in Los Angeles, California.

 i.    Evidence of water bodies in present desert areas.

 j.    Evidence of a recent drastic rise in the sea level.

k.    The universal occurrence of rivers in valleys too large for the present system.

l.    Evidence from the geologic column suggests two things: (1)    That there was a continuous deposition of the stratum layers from beginning to end. There is no erosion in between the layers. In fact, in some layers there are actual ripple marks. In other stratums there exists one or more vertical tree trunks, with the same tree making its way up from top to bottom! (2)    That fossils from supposed different “ages” in the evolutionary theory actually lived at the same time!

31.    How destructive would a worldwide flood be?

In his book entitled, Disasters, author John Godwin related the following terrifying information concerning just one kind of power which can spring from the ocean. This is called Tsunami or “killer waves.” He lists three examples.

a.    Hilo, Hawaii, May, 1960. At this time a hundred-foot wave traveling at 550 m.p.h. hit the coast, drowning 665 people and causing property damage of 50 million dollars.

b.    Lisbon, Portugal, Nov. 1, 1755. This city was hit by a seventy-foot wave which drowned 65,000 people.

c.    Indonesia, May 20, 1883. On this date the volcano Krakatoa exploded and caused a 150-foot wave to rush ashore. It sunk thirty-three European vessels, buried many islands beneath a nine-foot layer of mud, destroyed over 1000 coastal cities, and left over 50,000 dead in its terrible wake. One of the most descriptive summaries of the destruction wrought by a worldwide flood is from the pen of Dr. Henry Morris, Ph.D., and expert in hydrology (the nature of moving water).

Morris writes: “Visualize, then, a great hydraulic cataclysm bursting upon the present world, with currents of water pouring perpetually from the skies and erupting continuously from the earth’s crust, all over the world, for weeks on end, until the entire globe was submerged, accompanied by out-pourings of magma from the mantle, gigantic earth movements, landslides, tsunamis, and explosions. Sooner or later all land animals would perish. Many, but not all, marine animals would perish. Human beings would swim, run, climb, and attempt to escape the floods but, unless a few managed to ride out the cataclysm in unusually strong watertight sea-going vessels, they would eventually all drown or otherwise perish.

Soils would soon erode away and trees and plants be uprooted and carried down toward the sea in great mats on flooding streams. Eventually, the hills and mountains themselves would disintegrate and flow downstream in great landslides and turbidity currents. Slabs of rock would crack and bounce and gradually be rounded into boulders and gravel and sand. Vast seas of mud and rock would flow down-river, trapping many animals and rafting great masses of plants with them.

On the ocean bottom, upwelling sediments and subterranean waters and magmas would entomb hordes of invertebrates. The waters would undergo rapid changes in heat and salinity, great slurries would form, and immense amounts of chemicals would be dissolved and dispersed throughout the seaways. Eventually, the land sediments and waters would commingle with those in the ocean.

Finally, the sediments would settle out as the waters slowed down, dissolved chemicals would precipitate out at times and places where the salinity and temperature permitted, and great beds of sediment, soon to be cemented into rock, would be formed all over the world. The above, of course, is only the barest outline of the great variety of phenomena that would accompany such a cataclysm.” (Scientific Creationism, pp. 117, 118)

33.    How did Noah possibly gather all the needed animals from the various remote areas and nations of the world?

In the first place, we are told that God himself gathered these animals (Gen. 7:8, 9). In addition, the indication is strong that prior to the flood the continents of the earth were not separated by vast bodies of water as they are today.

36.    Were there dinosaurs on board the Ark?

Perhaps no other single question concerning the flood will more quickly bring out the agnostic’s sneers and the believer’s fears than will this one. But there is now mounting evidence that man and dinosaurs did indeed live on earth at the same time.

a.    In Rhodesia paintings on cave walls by bushmen known to have left the caves in 1500 b.c. include paintings of brontosaurs. According to the nature of their art, cavemen only painted from what they could actually see. Thus, they would have had to see a brontosaur in order to paint one.

b.    Evidence of these large reptiles has been found since the flood. Dinosaur footprints have been located in the same strata with human footprints in Glen Rose, Texas.

 c.    To conclude this argument, we quote again from Henry Morris: “The Book of Job is one of the oldest in the Bible and reflects living conditions in the early centuries after the flood. The climax of the book is when God speaks directly to Job and his friends in Job 38, 39, 40, and 41. God is calling attention to His great power in creating and sustaining all things (exactly the message urgently needed by the world today.)

Finally, He calls attention to His two greatest creations in the animal kingdom, behemoth (Job 40:15-24) and leviathan (Job 41:1-34). Most commentators today suggest behemoth is either the elephant or hippopotamus and that leviathan is the crocodile. However, the actual descriptions (and these, coming as they do from the mouth of God Himself, certainly refer to real animals) obviously do not apply to any animals known today.

The most reasonable interpretation, therefore, is that they refer to extinct animals. Perhaps, then behemoth is a land dinosaur and leviathan a marine dinosaur. Suddenly these chapters become very much alive and meaningful! These great animals were still living in Job’s day, even though they may have become extinct since. In reading God’s description of behemoth, one can clearly visualize a giant brontosaur, with his long neck projecting out to eat the swamp vegetation and to wash it down with great quantities of water, with his powerful legs and tail easily capable of demolishing his enemies with their overwhelming blows.

 ‘Behold now behemoth,’ God remarks . . . ‘he eateth grass as an ox…his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly. He moveth his tail like a cedar.’ (Ever see an elephant’s tail?) His bones are as strong pieces of brass, his bones are like bars of iron (no wonder so many fossil dinosaur bones have been preserved so long). Finally, God states, ‘He is the chief of the ways of God’ (thus the greatest animal God ever made); ‘He that made him can make his sword to approach unto him’ (thus God Himself can destroy the dinosaurs, even though man could not). ‘Behold he drinketh up a river…his nose pierceth through snares.’” (The Remarkable Birth of the Planet Earth, pp. 32, 33)

Thus, to answer the question concerning whether dinosaurs were on the ark, it may be said that inasmuch as they definitely existed with man prior to the flood, the chances are good that a young pair of these huge reptiles may well indeed have been aboard!

37.    Why do we not find animal fossils in Asia Minor, the place where the Ark landed?

Both agnostics and local flood advocates have often pointed out this fact to those who hold the universal flood view. Dr. Russell L. Mixter, professor of Zoology at Wheaton College, writes: “If kangaroos were in the ark and first touched land in Asia, one would expect fossils of them in Asia. According to Romer, the only place where there are either fossil or living kangaroos is in Australia. What shall we conclude?

 If the fossil evidence means that there never have been kangaroos in Asia, then kangaroos were not in the ark or if they were, they hurried from Australia to meet Noah, and as rapidly returned to their native land.

Is it not easier to believe that they were never in the ark, and hence were in an area untouched by the flood, and that the flood occurred only in the area inhabited by man?” (Creation and Evolution, p. 15)

This objection, however, may be quickly refuted by pointing out the fact that fossils are only formed under unusual conditions and that, apart from these conditions, all dead animals rapidly decompose and disappear. Note the following examples to undergird this:

a.    Concerning lions in Palestine: There is no fossil evidence of lions in Palestine, but the Old Testament informs us that the land was once infested with these animals. (See Jdg. 14:5; 1 Sam. 17:34; 2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Ki. 13:24; 20:36; 2 Ki. 17:25.)

b.    Concerning buffalo (or bison) in the American West: “The Buffalo carcasses strewn over the plains in uncounted millions two generations ago have left hardly a present trace. The flesh was devoured by wolves and vultures within hours or days after death, and even the skeletons have now largely disappeared, the bones dissolving and crumbling into dust under the attack of the weather.” (Carl Dunbar, Historical Geology, p. 39)

39.    Where did all the flood waters go?

Hebrew scholar John Whitcomb writes: “Even as the beginning of the flood year was characterized by supernatural intervention, so also the end of the flood was brought about by a stupendous miracle of God. Apart from this, the waters would have covered the earth forever, and all terrestrial-like would soon have come to an end. Two passages of Scripture, in widely separated Old Testament books, deal with this particular activity of God.

The first, in Genesis 8:2-3, tells us that ‘the fountains…of the deep…were stopped…and the waters returned from off the earth continually.’ Since the breaking up of the fountains of the great deep involved the uplift of ocean floors, the stopping of these ‘fountains’ must refer to a reversal of this action, whereby new and much deeper ocean basins were formed to serve as vast reservoirs for the two oceans which were separated from each other by the atmospheric expanse before the flood (Gen. 1:7).

A natural result of this subsidence was that ‘the waters returned from off the earth continually’ permitting continents to emerge from the oceans again, as they had done on the third day of creation.

A second passage that sheds important light upon the termination of the flood is Psalm 104:6-9. ‘Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment: the waters stood above the mountains. At thy rebuke they fled; at the voice of thy thunder they hasted away.

They go up by the mountains; they go down by the valleys unto the place which thou hast founded for them. Thou hast set a bound that they may not pass over; that they turn not again to cover the earth’ (Ps. 104:6-9). Though it contains several figures of speech, the passage is clearly historical in its reference to the flood. Note, for example, the statement of verse 6—‘the waters stood above the mountains’ and that of verse 9—‘thou hast set a bound that they may not pass over; that they turn not again to cover the earth.’

The latter is obviously a reference to the rainbow covenant of Genesis 9, in which God assured mankind that there would never again be a universal flood (cf. Isa. 54:9). Now the key statement in this passage (Ps. 104:8) for our purposes is in the beginning of verse 8: ‘The mountains rose, the valleys sank down’ (asv; cf. rsv, Berkeley, Amplified, nasb). We have already seen in Genesis 8:2 that the ocean basins were lowered at the termination of the flood, and with this concept the phrase ‘the valleys sank down’ is in agreement.

God supernaturally depressed various parts of the earth’s crust, and into those places which God ‘founded for them’ the waters ‘fled’ and ‘hasted away,’ there to abide while this earth exists (cf. Rev. 21:1), never again to cover the continents.” (The World That Perished)

40.    Has the Ark been sighted since it landed on Mt. Ararat?

Introduction: On the evening of June 2, 1840, a terrific earthquake shook the highest mountain of the Armenian plains, located north of Lake Van in Turkey. The name of this shattered mountain was Aghri Dagh, better known as Mt. Ararat. The power released was beyond that of hundreds of atomic bombs. It totally wiped out the little village of Ahora and the monastery of St. Jacob. Since 1840, a number of reports have come to the world’s attention concerning the sighting of an ark-like structure of hand-tooled timber on treeless Mt. Ararat.

Even prior to this there have been many ancient reports about this very thing, which includes the testimonies of Herodotus (the Greek historian), Josephus (the Jewish historian), the Koran (sacred book of the Islamic faith), and Marco Polo (famous European explorer).

A summary of the eyewitness reports since 1840 proves fascinating reading indeed. Their testimonies bear striking similarities.

 a.    The ship is half buried in a partly melted lake.

b.    Its altitude is around 13 thousand feet.

 c.    The inside of the ark is filled with wooden separators (like bars in a cage).

d.    The outside and inside are covered with a heavy varnish or lacquer.

e.    The wood is extremely hard, almost petrified.

 f.    The main door is missing. The witnesses themselves are an interesting lot:

g.    Haji Yearman (date of Ark sighting, 1865). He was an Armenian who lived at the base of Mt. Ararat. He died in Oakland, California, in 1916.

 h.    John Joseph. The Archbishop of Babylon and head of the Christian Nestorian Church. Joseph reported his experience at the World’s Fair in Chicago in 1893.

i.    W. Roskovitsky. A Russian airman. The sighting was in 1915 during World War I. Later, in 1917, a Russian expedition numbering 150 men saw it.

 j.    Carveth Wells. A popular radio commentator over kfi in Los Angeles reported seeing wood from the Ark while at the site in 1933.

k.    Various airmen (both Russian and American) during World War II. Mount Ararat was on a direct flight between the allied base in Tunisia and the Russian base at Brivan. One of the Russians claiming to have seen it was Major Jasper Maskelyn, wartime chief of Camouflage (1941-1945).

 l.    Resit. A Kurdish farmer. His experience was published in an Istanbul newspaper on November 13, 1948.

m.    Dr. Donald M. Liedman. Dr. Liedman is a Jewish scientist and medical doctor. He has given sworn testimony that he was shown actual snapshots of the Ark on two occasions while in Hamburg, Germany, by a Russian air force major who had personally taken the pictures during World War II.

n.    George Jefferson Greene. Greene was on a helicopter research mission for his company in 1953. While flying over Mt. Ararat he spotted a strange object and took a number of pictures from ninety feet. When developed, they showed a large wooden object. These pictures were seen by many. Greene was later found murdered. The pictures were never located.

o.    Bernard Navarra. This French explorer visited Mount Ararat and later wrote a book on the subject entitled, Noah’s Ark, I Touched It. Navarra cut some wood from an object on Mt. Ararat and subjected it to C-14 testings at two universities. “This fossilized wood was derived from an epoch of great antiquity.” (official statement from the University of Bordeaux) “Our analysis estimated the age of the fragment at 5000 years.” (from the Forest Institute in Madrid) Concluding statements:

p.    In the thirties, Dr. Alexander A. Koor, Russian Colonel, scholar, researcher, author, historian, and etymologist of ancient languages discovered and translated an ancient Sumerian inscription found at Karada Pass near Mt. Ararat. It read: “God sowed the seeds of the world into the waters…the waters filled the earth, descending from above…His children came to rest on the mountain peak.”

q.    The following quotes are taken from Viola Cumming’s book, Noah’s Ark, Fable or Fact? “Silhouetted against the sky at the crest of a rocky eminence some distance away, the sharply-carved outlines of a nobly-proportioned patriarchal head rose perhaps eight to ten feet above the top of the hill. For some reason, the ancient sculptor had faced the bearded, turbaned profile so that its sightless gaze would forever rest on the towering heights of Mt. Ararat.

Did the same hand that recorded the story of the Deluge on the Karada Cliff not far away also carve the majestic patriarchal head atop a hill facing the heights of Mt. Ararat? One of the still greater wonders of Ararat is the rainbow which can frequently be seen in the afternoon from the north and north-eastern slopes.”

41.    Was there an Ice Age?

Author Reginald Daly writes the following: “The Ice Age automatically follows the Universal Flood. There could not have been a universal flood without a glacial age following. The deserts were sopping wet for centuries following the flood. There were lakes everywhere. Evaporation kept humidity at 100. There was rain every day in the north country.

Winds carried moisture-laden clouds, super-saturated, to northern Canada, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, where snow poured down every day and every hour from November until April, probably five hundred or a thousand feet thick the first winter. Multiply 500 feet of snow by 100 years of wet weather. This makes 50,000 feet of snow which would settle down into approximately 5000 feet of ice—the glacial age. The tops of these mountains, a mile high, would be so cold that snow would continue to pile up all spring and early fall as well as all winter, leaving such a brief, chilly July-August summer that only a small amount of snow would melt.

The small amount melting in July would be many times over-balanced by the prodigious winter snowfall. The effect would be cumulative: the higher the mountain, the colder the temperature, the shorter the summers, and the greater the snowfall.

The weight of a mile or two of ice would cause it to flow outwards, across the Baltic Sea, depositing boulders all over the north German plain, as we find them today. Also downward over North America, across Lake Erie, leaving moraines, eskers, drumlins and boulders across Ohio and Missouri as far south as the Missouri River.” (Earth’s Most Challenging Mysteries, p. 142)

Few other men have written as extensively on the Ice Age from a Christian viewpoint as has Donald Patten.

He writes: “Mammoths were, along with mastodons, the largest members of the elephant family. They have become mummified in two manners, both of which suggest cataclysm and suddenness. In Alaska and Siberia mammoths have been mummified, apparently by the millions, both in ice and in sedimentary strata. It is as if they had been deposited in watery graves in some areas, but encased in ice in other areas, ice which has remained unmelted.

Their entombment and refrigeration have been so effective that mammoth carcasses have been thawed to feed sled dogs, both in Alaska and Siberia; in fact, mammoth steaks have even been featured on restaurant menus in Fairbanks. Every indication is that the mammoths died suddenly, in intense cold, and in great numbers. Death came so quickly that the swallowed vegetation is yet undigested in their stomachs and their mouths.” (The Ice Age, p. 105)

44.    What really took place at the Tower of Babel?

“And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth” (Gen. 11:1-4).

The passage in Genesis 11 does not teach that early mankind stupidly attempted to build a tower which would reach into outer space! Especially to be noted are the words in verse four “may reach.” They are in italics to show they are supplied by the translators and therefore not in the original Hebrew text. In reality the phrase should read: “whose top is heaven.”

Archaeological evidence suggests that the Tower of Babel was in reality a building given over to astrology, or the heathen worship of the heavens. Among the ruins of ancient Babylon is a building 153 feet high with a 400 foot base. It was constructed of dried bricks in seven stages, to correspond with the known planets to which they were dedicated.

The lowermost was black, the color of Saturn, the next orange, for Jupiter, the third red, for Mars, and so on. These stages were surmounted by a lofty tower, on the summit of which were the signs of the Zodiac. Dr. Barnhouse writes: “It was an open, definite turning to Satan and the beginning of devil worship. This is why the Bible everywhere pronounces a curse on those who consult the sun, the moon, and the stars of heaven.” “Lest we be scattered abroad” (11:4).

Years prior to this, the world’s first murderer, Cain, heard God say, “A fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth” (Gen. 4:12). Now Cain’s spiritual children were rebelling against the same God, but were anxious to stay together, lest they share Cain’s fate. German theologian Erich Sauer has written: “The original language in which Adam in Paradise had named all the animals was, as it were, a great mirror in which the whole of nature was accurately reflected.

But now God shattered this mirror, and each people retained only a fragment of it, the one a larger, the other a smaller piece, and now each people sees only a piece of the whole, but never the whole completely.” (Dawn of World Redemption, p. 82)

 Thus, the many earphones and translation booths at the United Nations in New York today give eloquent testimony to the tragic episode at Babel. “Therefore is the name of it called Babel” (11:9). This tower project may have been named by Nimrod himself. Babel literally means “gate of God.”

Thus, while mankind had rejected the true God, they nevertheless attempted to assuage their uneasy consciences by acknowledging some vague and impersonal “grand architect of the universe.” But it didn’t work! God changed the meaning of the word Babel to mean “confusion.”